- Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient
- Birth name: Wilhelmine Schröder
- Married name: Wilhelmine von Bock
- b in Hamburg,
- d in Coburg,
- Characteristic statement:
„Wilhelmine ist als eine der größten deutschen Singschauspielerinnen, als die deutsche Gesangstragödin schlechthin, in die Geschichte der theatralischen Künste eingegangen. In ihrer wahrhaft gotterfüllten Leidenschaft schmelzen mehrere Zeitalter der Bühnenkunst zusammen, sie bildet die lebendige Brücke zwischen Weber und Wagner, sie ist das Medium zweier Genie-Epochen.“
“Wilhelmine made theatre history as one of the greatest German singer-actresses; the German singing tragic actress par excellence. Her truly god-filled passion merges multiple eras of stage art, she builds living bridges between Weber and Wagner, she is the medium of two genius-epochs.”
(Hans Schnoor (Hg.). Dresden. Vierhundert Jahre deutsche Musikkultur. Dresden: Dresdener Verlagsgesellschaft, 1948, p. 161).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was a renowned opera singer, who was also famous for her impressive acting skills. With this she helped to establish a new form of art, dramatised singing, becoming a role model and ideal in this area. The art of her dramatised singing inspired contemporary composers, such as Richard Wagner, to great extend.
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient grew up in several cities. Due to the political unrest of the Napoleonic era, the family moved from Hamburg to Prague and subsequently to Vienna - Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient began preparing for her acting and singing career during this time. From 1823 onwards she had an engagement in Dresden, her main place of activity, for 24 years (see Emerson, p. 144). She started numerous tours from there, travelling through Germany several times, repeatedly visiting Leipzig, Berlin and Hamburg in particular. Her most important regular places of activity internationally were London and Paris, where she spent several opera seasons respectively. She also travelled much for private reasons, for example following her third husband temporarily to the Baltic and performing in Riga and Dorpat (today Tartu) towards the end of her career.
The daughter of actress Sophie Schröder, nee Bürger (1781-1868), and her husband Friedrich Schröder († 1818), who also worked at the theatre, Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was born on 6th December 1804 in Hamburg. She was introduced to her parents’ work, who belonged to the Tillyan travelling group, very early in life. She began dancing and acting lessons at the age of four and took on smaller children’s parts in various theatre productions.
The family moved several times. In 1813 they left Hamburg and moved first to Prague and then to Vienna, where first the mother, then the father as well, secured an engagement at the Burgtheater. Wilhelmine went to acting school in both cities and together with her two sisters, Elisabeth and Auguste, belonged to the Horscheltian children’s ballet, which was originally located in Prague and later moved to Vienna as well (Wolzogen 1863, p. 14-15; Glümer 1885, p. 14-15).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was initially active solely as an actress and, from 1819 onwards, she played Aricia in Schiller’s “Phaedra“, Luise in Schiller’s “Intrigue and Love“ (“Kabale und Liebe”), Beatrice in Schiller’s “Bride of Messina“ and Ophelia in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet“ (Wolzogen 1863, 33; see Repertoire) amongst others. During this time she began to take singing lessons, and was first tutored by Joseph Mozatti. Later on she was tutored by the famous singing instructor Johann Aloys Miksch (1765-1845) in Dresden (Wolzogen 1863, p. 97).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient’s career as a singer began on 20th January 1821 when she starred at Vienna’s Court Opera (Hofoperntheater) at Kärntnertor as Parmina in Mozart’s “Magic Flute” (“Zauberflöte”) and immediately attracted much attention (Wolzogen 1863, p. 37). She had her breakthrough as an opera singer on 3rd November 1821 in Vienna as Agathe in Weber’s “Freischütz“. From this point onwards and during the following, very successful, concert tour to Kassel Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was continually celebrated as a “dramatic singer” (Wolzogen 1863, p. 52). Her reputation was cemented when she interpreted Leonore in Beethoven’s “Fidelio” in Vienna on 9th November 1822 (Wolzogen 1863, p. 52-60). Several guest performances in Dresden and Leipzig followed. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient’s first performance in Dresden took place 22nd July 1822; she sang Emmeline in Joseph Weigl’s “Schweizerfamilie.“ Soon afterwards the singer had her first permanent engagement at the Royal State Theatre (Königliches Hoftheater) in Dresden. The contract with this opera house was extended with smaller breaks up to 1847 and repeatedly renewed.
In 1823 Wilhelmine married actor Carl Devrient (1797-1872). The marriage ended in divorce five years later. The couple had four children, two boys and two girl; the youngest daughter Louise died very young. After the divorce the father kept custody of the children.
In August 1847 Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient married Officer von Döring; not much is known about him but he is rumoured to have been a known fraudster (Wolzogen, p. 316). The relationship temporarily caused financial ruin for the singer, as von Döring had had a contract drawn up when the couple got married that transferred ownership of all the singer’s assets and half of her Dresden pension to him (Wolzogen, p. 317). When the couple divorced in February 1848, von Döring successfully sued for the contractually warranted assets.
Two years passed before Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient married for the third and last time in March 1850. The marriage with Livonian Baron von Bock lasted for the rest of her life.
Since her debut at Dresden Theatre in 1823 Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient had a part in multiple world premieres and debut performances that were to some extend conducted personally by the composers or received great attention from the composers (see Repertoire/”Opernrollen”). Probably the most important performance for her career was “Euryanthe” by Carl Maria von Weber, which premiered on 31st March 1824 in Dresden. The Dresden premiere of the final version of Beethoven’s “Fidelio”, conducted by Carl Maria von Weber, on 29th April 1823 (Hochmuth, p. 112) also impressed the audience and the composer alike (see Recognition).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient undertook several international tours, mainly to France and England. Her first tour in 1830 led her to Paris. She was particularly celebrated there for the roles of Agathe (Carl Maria von Weber’s “Freischütz“) and Leonore (Ludwig van Beethoven’s “Fidelio“). Her second international tour in 1831 also took her to Paris. The Grand Opéra was unsuccessful in securing an engagement with the singer (Wolzogen, p. 183), but she agreed a contract with the Théâtre Italien in Paris where she sang for the winter season of 1831/32 (Wolzogen, p. 185). The dramatic singer had to face competition there from Giuditta Pasta, Maria Malibran, Maria Caradori-Allan and Eugenia Tadolini. In spring 1832 Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient said goodbye to the Théâtre Italien with Bellini’s “Il Pirata“. She did not return directly to Dresden but travelled to her first English guest performance in London, after which she signed a contract with the German-French-Italian opera society there, led by Thomas Monck-Mason. She opened and finished her London season as Fidelio (debut performance 18th May 1832, last performance 20th July 1832) and made German opera a new success in England with her performance. Audience and media were excited; the latter named her the “queen of tears”. In addition to her contractually specified engagement she also sang in various charity concerts, musical soirees and other concerts (see Repertoire). She received a second contract for the following summer season 1833, and in 1837 she accepted a third engagement at Drury Lane Theatre in London. This time she replaced singer Maria Malibran who had unexpectedly died on 23rd September 1836 (Wolzogen, p. 259). Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient also gave guest performances in Pest, Brno, Vienna, Breslau and Prague in 1835/36. In the 1840s she also thrilled the cities of Zurich, Danzig, Königsberg, Riga, Stettin, Posen, Copenhagen and Saint Petersburg (Wolzogen, p. 314-317).
In Dresden between 1833 and 1835, Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient played a character that should gain great personal significance for her; Romeo from Bellini’s “I Montecchi e i Capuleti“. The dramatic singer considered this her best role and wrote the following about it: “Die größte Schwierigkeit für die Darstellung dieser Rolle liegt darin, daß sie für eine Frau geschrieben wurde; die Künstlerin hat daher die ungeheuere Aufgabe, ihr Geschlecht vergessen zu machen und in Haltung, Bewegung, Stellung einen feurigen, von der ersten Liebesglut durchdrungenen Jüngling darzustellen. Nichts darf ihr Geschlecht verrathen, soll die ganze Situation nicht lächerlich werden. Sie muß gehen, stehen, hinknien wie ein Mann; sie muß den Degen ziehen und sich zum Kampf anstellen wie ein guter Fechter, und vor allen Dingen muß alles Weibische aus ihrem Costüm verbannt sein. Keine zierlichen Locken, kein eingezwängter Fuß, keine schöne Taille! Das Hutaufsetzen und Abnehmen, das Handschuh-Aus- und Anziehen ist nicht minder wichtig.“ (“The greatest difficulty of this role is that it is written for a woman; the artist’s tremendous challenge is to make the audience forget her sex and in posture, movement, bearing represent a fiery youth, infused with his first love’s passions. Nothing must betray her sex lest the situation becomes ridiculous. She has to walk, stand, knee like a man; she has to draw a rapier and mimic a good fencer in battle, and above all anything feminine must be banned from her costume. No delicate locks, no constrained foot, no beautiful waist! Putting on and taking off one’s hat and glove are no less important.” Glümer p. 89-90, Wolzogen p. 227)
The world premieres of Richard Wagner’s “Tannhäuser“, “Der fliegende Holländer” (“The Flying Dutchman”) and “Rienzi“ at Dresden Hofoper (court opera) in the 1840s were central events in opera history (see Recognition); Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient sang the operas’ leading roles respectively.
In addition to her continued performances at Dresden’s opera Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient sang the soprano part in Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy’s oratorio “Paulus“ on 16th March 1843 at personal request of the composer (see Recognition). In 1844 she increasingly sang songs by Robert and Clara Schumann; the former dedicated the song cycle “The Poet’s Love” (Dichterliebe) op. 48 to her.
At the beginning of May 1849 Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient witnessed the political unrests and riots in Dresden (Wolzogen, p. 324). The singer left the city to escape further unrest. When she returned to the city in 1851 with her husband von Bock she was arrested. She was accused of having participated in the May unrests, however, the city of Dresden refrained from further legal steps and the lawsuit against the singer was dropped. No significant research results are available about these events to date.
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient performed in operas and concerts up to the 1850s before retiring from stage for good. She sang one more time on 6th March 1859 - probably her last performance - in a Leipzig concert. A month later she collapsed in Dresden. Five months before her death Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient moved to Coburg, where she was cared for by her sister Auguste Schlönbach. She died 26th January 1860 and was initially buried in Coburg; her husband later had her body re-interred in Dresden - this was Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient’s written will. She is buried there in the Trinitatis cemetery.
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was the first and most influential dramatic singer of the 19th century. She was famous for her convincing acting performances and was referred to as a singing tragic actress. Her performances impressed remarkable intimacy. The art of musical acting made famous by her opened a new direction for dramatic music theatre and built the genre. “Wilhelmine ist als eine der größten deutschen Singschauspielerinnen, als die deutsche Gesangstragödin schlechthin, in die Geschichte der theatralischen Künste eingegangen. In ihrer wahrhaft gotterfüllten Leidenschaft schmelzen mehrere Zeitalter der Bühnenkunst zusammen, sie bildet die lebendige Brücke zwischen Weber und Wagner, sie ist das Medium zweier Genie-Epochen“. (“Wilhelmine made theatre history as one of the greatest German singer-actresses; the German singing tragic actress par excellence. Her truly god-filled passion merges multiple eras of stage art, she builds living bridges between Weber and Wagner, she is the medium of two genius-epochs.” Schnoor, Dresden. Vierhundert Jahre deutsche Musikkultur, p. 161).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was highly regarded by numerous contemporary musicians and composers.
Carl Maria von Weber was deeply impressed by her singing. After the “Der Freischütz“ performance on 7th May 1822 in Dresden he said about the dramatic singer she was the world’s first Agathe and had surpassed everything that he thought he had written into this role (Wolzogen 1863, p. 43). The Dresden premiere of his opera “Euryanthe” on 31st March 1824 also became a great success because of the singer, Weber noted this enthusiastically in his diary (printed in Schnoor, p. 166).
Ludwig van Beethoven experienced Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient during a performance of “Fidelio“ on 9th November 1822 (Wolzogen 1863, p. 52-60). Beethoven was so impressed with her performance that he supposedly promised to write an opera for her - a project never realised (Glümer 1885, p. 28; Wolzogen 1863, p. 60).
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe had opportunity to listen to the singer in 1830 when she travelled through Weimar. She sang Franz Schubert’s “Erlkönig“ for him. Highly satisfied with the performance, the poet thanked the singer by writing a poem into her album and appreciative words of thanks (Wolzogen, p. 146).
Robert and Clara Schumann also admired the singer. They knew each other personally. Robert Schumann’s diary notes testify to the friendly relationship between the musicians (Robert Schumann, Tagebücher, Band III, 1 und 2). In addition to this Robert Schumann dedicated the song cycle “The Poet’s Love” (Dichterliebe) op. 48 to the singer (Schumann-Forschungen 4, p. 34).
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy was also very taken with the dramatic singer. In a letter dated 2nd March 1843 he personally requested her to sing his “Paulus“: „Es liegt mir so viel daran, es thäte mir so leid, wenn Sie gerade dann abwesend wären und nicht mitwirkten, daß ich nicht unterlassen kann, Ihnen diese meine dringende Bitte auszusprechen […]“ (“It is very important to me, I would be so sorry if you happened to be absent then and were unable to take part, that I could not refrain from voicing my urgent request to you […]“ Glümer, p. 141f., Wolzogen, p. 277f. – dated incorrectly as 1845).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient granted his request. In another letter to Ferdinand David from Berlin dated 1st February 1844 Mendelssohn expresses his admiration for the singer as follows: “Die Devrient hat vorgestern in Romeo wieder furore gemacht.“ (“Devrient caused a sensation yet again in Romeo the day before yesterday.” Rothe / Szeskus, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Briefe, p. 194).
Sebastian Hensel’s publication “Die Familie Mendelssohn“ (“The Mendelssohn Family”) attests to the fact that Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was a frequent guest of the Mendelssohn family. Fanny [Mendelssohn] Hensel reportedly called the singer “das amüsanteste, tollste Frauenzimmer“/“the most amusing, most amazing dame” after one of these meetings (Hensel, Die Familie Mendelssohn, Band 2, p. 283).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient most important influence on the development of German opera probably happened through her work with Richard Wagner. He was significantly inspired by dramatic singing and composed the leading roles in “Rienzi“ (WP, Dresden, 20th October 1842), “Der fliegende Holländer“ (WP, Dresden, 2nd January 1843), and “Tannhäuser“ (WP, Dresden, 19th October 1845) for her. She was the one who according to Wagner “meinem künstlerischen Gefühle plötzlich eine neue und für das ganze Leben entscheidende Richtung gab“ / “gave my artistic feelings a new and life altering direction.” (Richard Wagner, Mein Leben, 1963, p. 48f.). Wagner’s autobiography notes that he saw Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient in Beethoven’s “Fidelio“. He described this initiation experience as follows: “Wenn ich auf mein ganzes Leben zurückblicke, finde ich kaum ein Ereignis, welches ich diesem einen in betreff seiner Einwirkung auf mich an die Seite stellen könnte. Wer sich der wunderbaren Frau aus dieser Periode ihres Lebens erinnert, muß in irgendeiner Weise die fast dämonische Wärme bezeugen können, welche die so menschlich-ekstatische Leistung dieser unvergleichlichen Künstlerin notwendig über ihn ausströmte.“ (“When I look back upon my entire life I hardly find an event that compares with this one with regards to its influence on me. Whoever remembers this wonderful woman at this period of her life has to, one way or another, attest to the almost demonic warmth that the so humanly-ecstatic achievement of this unique artist wrapped around him.” Wagner, Mein Leben, p. 49).
In his documentary biography, Wagner’s biographer Egon Voss raises the question if Wagner’s initiation experience was indeed based on a “Fidelio” performance: “Alle erhaltenen Zeugnisse sprechen vielmehr dafür, daß jenes Schlüsselerlebnis die Aufführung von Bellinis Romeo-und-Julia-Oper ,I Capuleti e i Montecchi‘ im März 1834 mit Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient in der Rolle des Romeo war […].“ (“All the remaining sources indicate that this key event was actually a performance of Bellini’s Romeo-and-Juliet-opera ,I Capuleti e i Montecchi’ in March 1834 with Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient as Romeo […]“ Voss, Wagner Dokumentarbiografie, p. 8).
Regardless of whether Wagner first saw the singer in “Fidelio” or “I Capuleti e i Montecchi“ - Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient’s performance was in any case of the greatest importance to the composer’s future career. Richard Wagner’s admiration for the singer shows in his letters and documents as well as pictures of her, which can be found at Villa Wahnfried.
In a letter to Ferdinand Heine dated 18th March 1841, prior to finishing his opera “Rienzi”, Wagner writes: “Daß Mad: Devrient sich für meine Oper interessirt, ist jedenfalls von der unermeßlichsten Wichtigkeit, denn in diesem Umstande allein beruht die glücklichste Chance für das Reüssiren meines Vorhabens. Fährt sie fort und überläßt sich mit Theilnahme meinen schwachen Inspirationen, so werde ich der großen Frau mein Alles zu verdanken haben. […]“ (“That the dame Devrient is interested in my opera is of unmeasurable importance, because this fact alone is the luckiest chance for the success of my enterprise. If she continues and takes part in my weak inspirations I will owe my everything to this great woman. […]“ Richard Wagner, Sämtliche Briefe, Band 1, p. 457).
After the world premiere of “Rienzi” Wagner wrote a letter to Eduard and Cäcilie Avenarius, dated 21st October 1842: “Es wäre mir lieber, ihr erführet es von einem Anderen, - denn ich muß Euch sagen, - daß noch nie, wie mir Alle versichern, in Dresden zum ersten Male eine Oper mit solchem Enthusiasmus aufgenommen worden ist, als mein Rienzi. Es war eine Aufregung, eine Revolution durch die ganze Stadt; […] die Devrient – Alles – Alles in einer Vollendung, wie man es hier noch nie erlebt. Triumph! Triumph!“ (“I would prefer you heard this from somebody else - because I have to tell you - that as all assure me, never has an opera premiere in Dresden met with such enthusiasm as my Rienzi. There was excitement, a revolution, through the entire city; […] the Devrient - all - all in a perfection never seen before. Triumph! Triumph!“ Richard Wagner, Sämtliche Briefe, Band 2, p. 167-8).
Richard Wagner also dedicated his pamphlet “Über Schauspieler und Sänger“ („About Actors and Singers“) to Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient (Richard Wagner, Dichtungen und Schriften, Band 9, p. 183-263).
Furthermore his memoirs “Mein Leben” (“My Life”) (Wagner, Mein Leben, 1963) report on his artistic relationship with the singer.
Moreover, Wagner had the singer embodied in the sgraffito above the entrance to Haus Wahnfried in a picture of the antique tragedy (Egon Voss, Richard Wagner. Dokumentarbiografie, Abbildungen 216 und 217, Text S. 453; see also Habel, Festspielhaus, p. 517, 584, 586, 589). A white marble burst of Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient is located in the great hall of Villa Wahnfried (Habel, Festspielhaus, p. 537, 600).
Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient was recognised as one of the most important dramatic singers during her own lifetime. She caused a sensation everywhere she performed. She was a pioneer of dramatic singing and was known as the singing tragic actress. Numerous reviews and magazine articles were published during Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient’s lifetime. Only part of the documents have so far been reviewed to portray her life. Several of her contemporaries were greatly inspired by Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient. Richard Wagner as well as Clara and Robert Schumann are probably the most well known amongst them (see Recognition). Many artists portrayed the singer during her lifetime, among them Wilhelm Hensel. One of the pencil drawings of the singer bears the dedication: “Die Musik ist das einzige Talent, welches für sich besteht. – alle anderen verlangen Zeugen. Berlin d 31. März 1844.“ / “Music is the only talent that can stand on its own. - all others require witnesses. Berlin 31st March 1844.” (Hensel, Preußische Bildnisse, p. 101). According to Eduard Devrient’s memories Carl Joseph Begas also portrayed the singer: “Begas’ Porträt von der Schröder-Devrient ist ein Meisterwerk. Wie hat er die ganze Geschichte des Weibes in der schönsten Weise auf dies Gesicht geprägt“ / “Begas’ portrait of Schröder-Devrient is a master piece. How he managed to impress the dame’s entire history in such beautiful manner onto this face” (Eduard Devrient, Erinnerungen, Band 1, p. 444). There also were composers and authors in the 20th century who commemorated the singer in their work: Ludwig Hartmann composed “Schwanenlied” (“Swan Song”) in 1910 after a hand-written poem by the singer. Her exciting life inspired numerous writers to create novels about it, among them Hermann Richter (1927), Therese Rie-Andro (1928) and the Duchess von Baudissin (1937):
Baudissin, Gräfin von. Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient. Der Schicksalsweg einer großen Künstlerin. Roman. Berlin: Drei Masken 1937.
Hartmann, Ludwig. „Schwanenlied“, Opus 4 Nr. 2. Nach einer Handschrift von Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient componiert für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte. Zweite, verbesserte u. revidirte Ausgabe mit dem Facsimile des Gedichtes. Ausgabe für mittlere Stimme. Dresden: Adolph Brauer, um 1910. Kassel: Bärenreiter Verlag, 1994.
Richter, Hermann. Das wilde Herz. Ein Lebensroman der Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient. Leipzig: Koehler & Umelang GmbH, 1927.
Rie-Andro, Therese. Vox Humana. Das Leben einer Sängerin. Ebenhausen bei München: Langewiesche Brandt, 1928.
Schumann, Robert und Clara. Liederalbum für Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient. Faksimile der Handschrift, 40 Ms. Mus. 282 aus der Handschriftenabteilung der Landesbibliothek und Murhardschen Bibliothek der Stadt Kassel (Gesamthochschulbibliothek) herausgegeben für die Kasseler Musiktage von Angelika Horstmann.
There are multiple sources and documents (letters and manuscripts) about Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient that have not been extensively researched to date and are scattered in various German libraries:
Berlin, Freie Universität, Institut für Theaterwissenschaft (Berlin, Freie Universität, Institute for Theater Studies)
Berlin, Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung Preußischer Kulturbesitz (Berlin, Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung Preußischer Kulturbesitz)
Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Handschriftenabteilung (Berlin, State Library, Manuscript Section)
Bielefeld, Stadtarchiv und Landesgeschichtliche Bibliothek (Bielefeld, Stadtarchiv und Landesgeschichtliche Bibliothek)
Bonn, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek (Bonn, University Library)
Coburg, Kunstsammlungen der Veste Coburg (Coburg, Art Collection at castle Veste Coburg)
Darmstadt, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek (Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek)
Dortmund, Stadt- und Landesbibliothek (Dortmund, Stadt- und Landesbibliothek)
Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, Staats – und Universitätsbibliothek, Handschriftensammlung (Dresden, Saxon County Library, State and University Library, Manuscript section)
Düsseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-Institut (Dusseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-Institut, department of manuscripts of the former Dusseldorf Library)
Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg (Frankfurt upon Main, University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg)
Hamburg, Universität, Zentrum für Theaterforschung (Hamburg, University of Hamburg, Zentrum für Theaterforschung)
Hannover, Bibliothek der Hochschule für Musik und Theater (Hannover, Library of the University of Music, Drama and Media)
Hannover, Stadtarchiv (Hannover, Stadtarchiv)
Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek (Heidelberg, University Library)
Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Literaturwissenschaftliches Institut (Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-University, Literaturwissenschaftliches Institut)
Köln, Historisches Archiv (Cologne, Historical Archive)
Köln, Universität, Institut für Theater-, Film- und Fernsehwissenschaft / Theatersammlung (Cologne, University of Cologne, Institute for Theatre-, Film- and Television Studies / Theatre Collection)
Leipzig, Stadtgeschichtliches Museum (Leipzig, Stadtgeschichtliches Museum)
München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek)
New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library (New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library)
Nürnberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum (Nuremberg, Nürnberg, Germanisches Nationalmuseum)
Weimar, Goethe-Schiller-Archiv (Wilhelmines Stammbuch) (Weimar, Goethe and Schiller Archive (Wilhelmines Stammbuch))
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek (Wolfenbuttel, Herzog-August-Library)
There are also numerous concert reviews and critiques in magazine that would have to be reviewed for a history of the singer’s reception (see section “Quellen”).
It is necessary to conduct a current, extensive and scientific study about Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient. Her role as a dramatic opera singer has not yet been comprehensively researched. There is also a need to research her versatile concert activities. A scientific study regarding her reception history and her influence on the European opera scene is also outstanding. The singer’s political tendencies and activities mentioned in Wolzogen and Glümer have not been researched yet either. Particularly informative and desirable would be a collection and critical edition of her correspondence as an important primary source compilation for opera-, singing- and gender studies; Claire Glümer names various influential correspondents such as Carl Gustav Carus, Helmine von Chézy, Lucile Grahn, Theodor Hell, Ferdinand Hiller, Carl von Holtei, Heinrich Laube, Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Theodor Mosevius, Elise Polko, Gioacchino Rossini, Clara and Robert Schumann, Gaspare Spontini, Daniel Stern (pseudonym of countess Marie d’Agoult), Caroline Ungher-Sabatier and many more.
|Virtual International Authority File (VIAF):||71397570|
|Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (GND):||119056569|
|Library of Congress (LCCN):||n85342496|
Juliette Appold, 25. September 2008
Redaktion: Regina Back
Zuerst eingegeben am 07.10.2008
Zuletzt bearbeitet am 25.04.2018
Juliette Appold, Artikel „Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient“, in: MUGI. Musikvermittlung und Genderforschung: Lexikon und multimediale Präsentationen, hg. von Beatrix Borchard und Nina Noeske, Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg, 2003ff. Stand vom 25.4.2018