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  • Josephine Fröhlich

    by Ingeborg Harer
    Franz Schubert am Klavier und sein Freundeskreis im Jahre 1826. Josephine Fröhlich (Mitte), Heliogravur von J. Blechinger
    Names:
    Josephine Fröhlich
    Birth name: Josepha Caroline Fröhlich
    Lebensdaten:
    b in Wien, Österreich
    d in Wien, Österreich
    Activities:
    Singer, Singing Teacher, Composer, Correspondent
    Characteristic statement:

    „Am 1. Februar [1824] gab die junge Sängerinn Josephine Fröhlich, aus Wien, hier in Siboni's Schule gebildet, nachdem sie früher in mehrern Pivatzirkeln, und namentlich in einem großen Concerte bey Sr. königl. Hoheit dem Prinzen Christian sich sehr vortheilhaft hören ließ, ein großes Vocal- und Instrumental-Concert im königl. Theater. Das Haus war gedrängt voll, schon Tags vorher war kein Billet, keine Loge mehr zu erhalten. Die Ouverture zu Klingemanns Faust, von Schulz, machte den Anfang. Darauf sang Mlle. Fröhlich eine große Arie aus Rossini's Oper La Donna del Lago. Ihre Stimme ist kräftig und angenehm, ihr Vortrag seelenvoll und in wahrhaft, italienischem Geschmacke ausgebildet. Sie erntete ungetheilten, lebhaften Beyfall.“


    (“On February 1st, [1824], the young singer, Josephine Fröhlich from Vienna, trained here in Siboni’s school, having appeared at several private gatherings and, in particular, to great acclaim at a large concert for HRH Prince Christian, gave a large vocal and instrumental concert at the royal theatre. The house was packed, with no tickets and no boxes available even the day before. The overture to Klingemann’s Faust by Schulz opened the show, followed by Miss Fröhlich with a large aria from Rossini’s opera La Donna del Lago. Her voice is strong and pleasant, her performance soulful and trained in the true Italian style. She received universal and vigorous applause.”)


    (Wiener Zeitschrift, 23. März 1824)


    Profile

    As the youngest of the four Fröhlich sisters, Josephine Fröhlich was the one who performed most often as a singer, and did so both at home and abroad. Unlike her sisters, she pursued a career as an opera singer and was trained professionally. Much admired as a young singer and predicted to have a great future in the press, she distinguished herself in Denmark and Italy, but gave up her career a few years later. Clearly, she did not cope well with the demands of the opera business and returned to Vienna after years of traveling. She decided to pursue a career as a singing teacher. Through private singing lessons Josephine Fröhlich made her financial contribution to the shared household with her sisters in Vienna, which also included Franz Grillparzer from 1849-1872. As a professional singer and with her contacts to Denmark, Sweden and Italy, she played a key role in the musical culture of the Fröhlich house, not least because of the visitors her connections attracted to the home. She also appeared in various well-known Viennese salons, such as those hosted by the families of Raphael Georg Kiesewetter, Ignaz Sonnleithner and Anton Pettenkoffer. She performed a range arias and songs in various private and semi-public musical events. These included songs by Franz Schubert, which were mainly pieces for multiple voices, inspired by her sister Anna Fröhlich.


    Josephine was the only one of her sisters to compose and she wrote a number of works, which were presumably intended for performance at home or at the Sonnleithners’ home.

    Cities and countries

    Josephine Fröhlich began her career as an opera and concert singer in Vienna and continued her training with Giuseppe Siboni in Denmark, where she also had numerous opportunities to perform. She appeared in Sweden and also in Dresden, on her way back to Vienna. She travelled to Venice, Milan and Prague to sing various roles in opera houses there. Eventually, she returned to Vienna and made her private and professional home there.

    Biography

    Josephine Fröhlich was the youngest of the four Fröhlich sisters (Anna Fröhlich, Barbara Fröhlich, Katharina Fröhlich) and was born on December 12th, 1803, in Vienna/Wieden. Like her sisters, she was introduced to music at an early age and, as the youngest daughter of Mathias Fröhlich (1756-1843) and his wife Barbara (born Mayr, 1764-1841), her singing and music-making older sisters likely served as role models. She probably learned to play the piano as a child, although there is no direct evidence for that. It is known, however, that in 1819 Josephine Fröhlich was taught by her ten-year-older sister Anna as part of her teaching duties at the ‘Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’ [Conservatorium of the Society of Friends of Music]. It can be assumed that she had taken singing lessons from Anna previously and that, like her sister, she was also influenced in her early years by the Italian tenor Giuseppe Siboni (1780-1839) during his visits to Vienna, e.g. from 1810-14 and 1817-1818. Siboni was not only a celebrated opera singer in Vienna, but a networker within the Schubert circle, to which he himself belonged. He is also said to have encouraged the founding of a singing school in Vienna as early as 1815. In the same year, at the age of 12, Josephine was already an active member of the ‘Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’ in Vienna (Blaha, 2002, p. 183). Her first performances soon followed as part the society’s events. In a description of one of the musical evenings that took place at the Sonnleithners’ home between 1815 and 1824, the sisters Anna, Josephine and Barbara Fröhlich were named as participating soprano singers (Böckling, 1862, p. 374). In his ‘Musikalischen Skizzen’, published in 1862, Leopold Sonnleithner, who introduced Franz Schubert to the Fröhlich sisters, mentioned Josephine and her sister Barbara’s participation in oratorio performances in 1819/20 (Sonnleithner, 1862, p. 179)

    more on Biography less on Biography

    Josephine’s first successes as a singer led to a position at the Wiener Kärntertortheater in 1821, which she held until 1822. In 1823, she followed Giuseppe Siboni to Copenhagen, where he had been working as the director of the singing academy at the royal theatre since 1819. Josephine's arrival in Copenhagen is stated as May 31st, 1823, having accompanied Siboni's daughter Peppina on her journey home and then taking up residence with the Sibonis in Copenhagen. On November 9th, 1823, she sang for the royal family for the first time (Schepelern, 1989, p. 237). Several evening occasions for the royal family were to follow. A first public concert at the royal theatre in Copenhagen was finally made possible on January 20th, 1824. During this time, Josephine Fröhlich’s voice changed from soprano to alto (occasionally also referred to as mezzo-soprano), a development Josephine shared with her sisters in a letter on February 17th, 1824, and which she initially deeply regretted. After further public concerts at the royal theatre in Copenhagen and numerous performances for the royal family at court, Josephine Fröhlich was accompanied back to Vienna by her father. On her trips to various opera houses in the years that followed, she travelled with her sister Katharina Fröhlich. On June 5th and 8th, 1826 she performed as a concert singer in Prague, where she sang between the acts of an opera (critique in Allgemeine Theaterzeitung from July 27th, 1826. Clive, 1997, p. 52).


    In 1827, Siboni suggested to his student, Isaac Albert Berg (1803-1886), who came from Stockholm, that he should stay at the Fröhlich sisters’ home in Vienna. While he was there, he performed a Swedish song for Franz Schubert, which would later have a marked influence on his composition of the Piano Trio in Eb major D 929 (Hilmar/Jestremski, 1997, p. 38).


    Various contemporaries reported on Josephine Fröhlich’s singing abilities. Raphael Georg Kiesewetter noted that she sang “aus dem Stegreif” [impromptu] in Conti’s cantata ‘Timoteo’ at the Sonnleithners’ house concerts “inter amicos” [amongst friends] (Kiesewetter, 1847, p. 25). In the same year, the legendary first performance of ‘Ständchen’ D920 (“Zögernd leise”) followed, on the occasion of Louise Gosmar’s (1803-1858) birthday on August 11th, 1827. Anna Fröhlich had commissioned the text from Franz Grillparzer and the composition from Franz Schubert for her student Gosmar (see also Anna Fröhlich). Following the open air performance in the Gosmar family’s garden, the ‘Ständchen’ [serenade] was performed with Josephine Fröhlich as the soloist at Schubert’s “Privat-Concert” on March 26th, 1828.


    Following a stay in Venice in 1829 (accompanied again by her father) and her appearance as Page in Rossini’s ‘Le Comte Ory’ at the Teatro San Benedetto, Josephine Fröhlich travelled to Milan with her sister towards the end of 1930, where she began rehearsals at La Scala for the opera ‘Il Romito di Provenza’ by Pietro Generali (1773-1832). There were clearly problems among the singers and Josephine felt disadvantaged by a role that was inappropriate for her. The negative assessment of her vocal performance on January 15th, 1831 and the impossibility of obtaining a role appropriate for her experience and voice, led her to terminate the contract. Josephine and Katharina, who reported in letters to Vienna in detail about what they had experienced in Milan, returned to Vienna – ultimately also on the family’s urgent advice.


    In the 1830s, Josephine Fröhlich continued to appear at various musical events in Vienna (see also Repertoire). Along with the somewhat abrupt termination of her operatic career, she appears to have made a gradual move towards teaching singing, evidently even before 1835, so that she, like her sister Anna, was able to earn a considerable income and ultimately fortune from private students (see Reception). (Wiener Theaterzeitung, June 24th, 1835, p. 500)


    Over the course of the 1830s, Josephine Fröhlich’s artistic obligations as a singer decreased. Perhaps a sad event in her private life also played a role in slowing down her professional activities: to what extent the suggestion that Moritz Sonnleithner was interested in a private relationship with Josephine – as can be seen from Moritz’s letters to Josephine – can be taken seriously, cannot be ascertained (see also Sauer, 1894, p. 85). It is certain, however, that Moritz Sonnleithner (1805-1836), as private tutor to Wilhelm Bogner (son of Barbara Fröhlich, married named Bogner) was at the Fröhlich house on a daily basis and took part in the lives of the sisters. When he unexpectedly died in 1836 at the age of 31, his cousin, Franz Grillparzer, wrote a tomb inscription for him that hints at his significance in the Fröhlich household: „Wenig bemerkt war sein Leben, still und ruhig sein Tod. Erst aus der Größe unseres Schmerzes erkannten wir die Größe unseres Verlustes.“ (“Little noticed was his life, still and quiet was his death. Only from the size of our pain did we realize the size of our loss.”)


    From the 1840s on, Josephine Fröhlich devoted herself to composing. The genre of the waltz, which emerged in the Biedermeier era, seems to have interested her particularly. Her works are mainly in Leopold Sonnleithner’s handwriting (Moritz Sonnleithner’s brother), which suggests his support and that private performances within their circle of friends probably took place. Anna Fröhlich reported in a letter to Katharina Fröhlich on May 28th, 1844: „Pepi [Josephine] spielt ihre Walzer“ (“Pepi [Josephine] played her waltz”). A little later, on June 18th,1844, Josephine wrote that a public performance of her waltzes by the Lanner orchestra, in the then popular Zögernitz amusement park in Döbling, could be likely. There is no information about actual performances of her pieces, but it is possible (see Blaha, 2002, p. 299).


    Josephine Fröhlich remained unmarried and died at the age of 75 on May 7th, 1878 in Vienna.

    Appreciation

    Josephine Fröhlich was in her prime as a singer during her time in Copenhagen between 1823 and 1825. Following a concert in Vienna in 1826, a critic wrote: „Josephine Fröhlich zeigte schon vor ihrer Reise nach Kopenhagen vorzügliche Anlagen für den Gesang. Eine kräftige, klingende Stimme, ein großer Umfang von Tönen, und Wärme im Ausdruck harrten nur noch der letzten Ausbildung, die jener die nöthige Sicherheit, Rundung und Biegsamkeit, dieser hingegen Wahrheit und Geschmack verleihen sollte. Siboni’s, dieses […] unvergeßlichen, dramatischen Sängers gründliche, musicalische Kenntnisse und bekannte gute Lehr-Methode berechtigten bey einer Schülerin, für welche die Natur und ihr erster Unterricht schon so viel gethan hatten, zu nicht gewöhnlichen Erwartungen, und sie wurden bey diesem Concerte auf glänzende Weise erfüllt“ (“Even before her trip to Copenhagen, Josephine Fröhlich displayed great singing talent. A strong, resonant voice, a wide range and warm expression needed only the final training to provide the necessary security, roundness and flexibility, not to mention authenticity and taste. The thorough musical knowledge and proven teaching methods of Siboni, this unforgettable, dramatic singer, exceeded even the most unusual expectations, with a student for whom nature and her initial training had already done so much, and who shone brilliantly in this concert”; Wiener Zeitung from February 25th, 1826, p. 191).


    Josephine Fröhlich planned her career herself. Following her attempt to work internationally as a singer of Italian opera, particularly in Italy, and a disappointing experience in Milan, she returned to Vienna, where she was greatly appreciated as singer in numerous ‘evening entertainments’ and private concerts. In the 1930s, her repertoire in Vienna included various opera arias as well as art song. She took part in performances of works that her sister Anna Fröhlich commissioned from Franz Schubert and in numerous private events. In the end, like her sister Anna, she dedicated herself to teaching.


    Josephine Fröhlich was the only one of her sisters to leave behind compositions (from the 1840s). That she was invited to compose a song for the “Huldigung der Tonsetzer Wiens an Elisabeth Kaiserin von Österreich” (“Vienna Composers Homage to Empress Elizabeth of Austria”) in 1854, shows that she was held in high regard, even after her time as a singer in Vienna’s musical spotlight had passed. In March 1829, she became an honorary member of the Società Apollinea in Venice (see monthly newsletter from 1829). From Venice, Josephine sent an application to the King of Denmark, dated May 16th, 1829, requesting the award of the title ‘Royal Danish Kammersängerin’, which was granted. What this title meant to her, she explained very clearly when she wrote: “Da es mir von der größten Wichtigkeit bei meiner jetzigen Carrière sein würde […]” (“since it would be of the utmost importance to my present career [...]”; quoted from Blaha, 2002, p. 215). Indeed both of these awards became a kind of trademark and thus decisive for the singer’s career.

    Reception

    During her lifetime, Josephine gained recognition not just a one of the Fröhlich sisters, but in the truest sense of the word, as a distinguished singer: a student at the ‘Konservatoriums der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien’, an honorary member of the ‘Società Apollinea in Venice’ and Royal Danish ‘Kammersängerin’.

    As with the Fröhlich sisters in general, Josephine’s connection with Franz Schubert and Franz Grillparzer, who both created works for her, was emphasized by immediate posterity.

    more on Reception less on Reception

    Josephine Fröhlich’s performances on the opera stage were just as much the subject of discussion in the daily press as her participation in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’s musical events or in Vienna’s musical salons, which included those at the house of the Fröhlich sisters’ as well as those of the Sonnleithner and Kieswetter families’. Josephine’s somewhat reserved nature was repeatedly noted by critics, as in 1828, when it was said: „Schade, daß die Wirkung ihres Gesanges durch eine auffallende Befangenheit beeinträchtigt wird, wenn es ihr gelingt, dieselbe zu beseitigen, so wird die Großartigkeit ihres Styles und die Eleganz ihrer Methode erst recht leuchtend wirksam seyn, und der tiefe, gefühlvolle Vortrag noch tiefer die Herzen rühren. Dlle Fröhlich sollte öfter vor dem Publicum erscheinen, und bald würde sie Teutschland unter ihre großen Sängerinnen rechnen“ (“What a pity the effect of her singing is impaired by such a striking shyness. If she succeeds in eliminating this, then the grandeur of her style and the elegance of her technique will be quite brilliantly effective, and the deep, soulful performance stir the heart even more deeply. Miss Fröhlich should appear before the public more often, and soon she will be among Germany’s great singers”; Der Sammler 26 from February 28th, 1828, p. 104).



    Students (Selection)

    Betty Bury (1827-1898)

    Julie and Franziska Goldberg, dates of birth/death unknown

    Karoline Mayer (1815-1889

    Marie Najmájer (1844-1904)

    Elisabeth Nosé (verh. Dreyschock) (1832-1911)

    Leopoldine Tuczek (1821-1883)

    Hermine Vocati (married name Weiß), dates of birth/death unknown


    Literary Reception (Selection)

    Wickenburg-Almasy, Wilhelmine. 1880 see B Sources

    Najmájer, Marie von. 1904 see B Sources

    Lux, Joseph August. 1912 see B Sources

    Lux, Joseph August. Die Schwestern Fröhlich (Grillparzers ewige Braut) Eine Komödie aus Wiens klassischer Zeit in 3 Akten mit einem Vorspiel und einem Nachspiel. Gmain, Die Weissen Hefte, 1923.

    Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie. 1915/16 see B Sources


    Wilhelm Bogner. Verse an Josephine Fröhlich [vor 25. Mai 1848]. Wienbibliothek Hs.

    Leopold Sonnleithner. Namenstaggedicht für Josephine Fröhlich. 9. März 1869. Wienbibliothek Hs.

    Poems and Verses inter alia by Franz Grillparzer.


    Piano [Composer unknown] dedicated to Josephine Fröhlich

    6 norske Fejere: til Erindring om Hundebagene i Norge. Dedicated to „Mademoiselle [ ] Frö[h]lich“, Anno 1825. Wienbibliothek Hs

    List of works

    Compositions by Josephine Fröhlich


    Songs with Piano Accompaniment


    Fröhlich, Josefine. Lebe wohl. Wanderlied. T: Ludwig Uhland. 11. October 1843. Wienbibliothek. Hs


    Fröhlich, Giuseppina. Romanze: Alla Luna. […] Poesia del Signore [ ] Ongaro. Cantante di Camera di S. M. il Re di Danimarca , 1843 . Datum: 18. Settembre 1843 Wienbibliothek. Hs


    Fröhlich, Giuseppa. Alla luna. [An den Mond]. Poesia del Sig.re Ongaro. Eingerichtet und herausgegeben von Anton Diabelli. Wien: Ant. Diabelli 1845.


    Fröhlich, Josefine. Rückerinnerung. T: Franz Grillparzer. Hs: Joseph Laska (1886-1964) ÖNB

    Fröhlich, Josefine. Rückerinnerung. T: Franz Grillparzer. Hs: Leopold Sonnleithner, [o.J.] (Mit Autorenvermerk von Anna Fröhlich eigh.) Wienbibliothek Hs


    Fröhlich, Josepha. Erinnerung. T: Grillparzer (für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte-Begleitung). In: Huldigung der Tonsetzer Wiens an Elisabeth Kaiserin von Österreich (Wien 1854). Autograph ÖNB. Erstdruck in Reproduktion der Originalhandschriften, veröffentlicht von Günter Brosche. Graz-Austria 1987 (DTÖ 142-144). S. 58.



    Orchestra


    Fröhlich, Josefine. Blüthen und Früchte: Walzer [A-Dur für Orchester]. Hs. Leopold Sonnleithner. Partitur. 1844. Wienbibliothek Hs


    Fröhlich, Josefine. Blüten und Früchte. Walzer [A-Dur für Orchester] Instrumentalstimme(n). 17 Orchesterstimmen. Hs unbekannt, „großen Trommel“ Hs von Leopold Sonnleithner. Wienbilbiothek Hs



    Piano


    Fröhlich, Josefine. Sechs Walzer. 2te. August 1847. Wienbibliothek Hs


    Fröhlich, Josefine: [Blüten und Früchte]. Walzer As-dur für Klavier. Unbek. Hs. Schlussteils in Hs. Leopold Sonnleithner. Wienbibliothek Hs


    Fröhlich, Josefine: [Blüten und Früchte]. [Walzer, teilweise in As-Dur]. [Franz] Grillparzer gewidmet. Hs. Leopold Sonnleithner , [o.J.]. (Autoren- und Widmungsvermerk von Anna Fröhlich eigh.) Wienbibliothek Hs


    Fröhlich Josefine. Blüten und Früchte. Walzer (in As-Dur für Klavier). Hs 1960 Joseph Laska (1886-1964) Hs ÖNB

    Repertoire

    Josephine Fröhlich sang Mozart roles, but especially Rossini roles, as well as arias from somewhat lesser known composers. She often performed music by Franz Schubert, but mostly in private settings. Music by Handel, Cimarosa and other composers from previous centuries was included in the musical evenings at the Kiesewetters’ home.

    more on Repertoire less on Repertoire

    The following list, which is not exhaustive, was prepared according to Blaha, 2002, Chronology pp. 31-46, and is supplemented. It is arranged chronologically and according to venue. The so-called ‘Abend Unterhaltungen’ [evening entertainments] took place in Vienna, organized by the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. The possible participation of Josephine’s sisters or others (when known) is noted in parentheses. Where possible, the performances are supplemented by concert reviews or announcements in the daily press.


    Vienna


    19.4.1818 Kiesewetter (mit Anna, Barbara und Katharina Fröhlich), Madrigale

    10.12.1818 Duett von Mozart (Sophie Kreuzer)

    31.12.1818 Abend-Unterhaltung, Mozart

    21.1.1819 Abend-Unterhaltung (mit Barbara und Katherina Fröhlich), Terzett von Cimarosa

    6. April 1819 (?) und 13. April 1820 (?) „Josefine und Babette Fröhlich“ Soli in Händels „Messias“ und „Alexanderfest“ (?) Böcklin.

    31.12.1819 bei Sonnleithner, Quartett aus Zauberflöte von Mozart („Bald prangt….“)

    17. Dezember 1820 Gesellschaftsconcert „Winters Cantate. Die Macht der Töne“ (Barbara Fröhlich)

    28. 12. 1820 Abend-Unterhaltung, Quartett aus Zauberflöte

    15. und 18. 3. 1821 Redoutensaal „Das Leiden unsers Herrn Jesus Christus“ (Josef Weigl),

    1. 6. 1821 Kärntnertortheater, Debut: Constanze in „Entführung aus dem Serail“ von Mozart, und weitere Aufführungen.

    Conversationsblatt. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Unterhaltung Wien. 3. Jg. Nr. 46. ). Juni 1821. S. 550.

    Morgenblatt der gebildeten Stände Nr. 204. 25. August 1821.

    7.12.1821 Kärntnertortheater, Lieschen im Singspiel „Der kleine Matrose“ von Gaveaux, weitere Aufführungen bis April 1822.

    2.1.1822 Kärntnertortheater, Madame Stillfeld, in „Die Junggesellenwirtschaft“ von Gyrowetz, weitere Aufführungen bis incl. Februar 1822.

    18.2.1822 Kärntnertortheater, Elvira in „Die Italienerin in Algier“ von Rossini, weitere Aufführungen.

    26.4.1822 Kärntnertortheater, Amalie in „Die musikalische Akademie“ von Hieronymus Payer, weitere Aufführungen bis Juni 1822.

    23.6.1822 Kärntnertortheater, Ritter Vergy in „Raoul, der Blaubart“ von Gretry-Fischer.

    18.7.1822 Musikalische Privat-Unterhaltung im Saal des Ritters von Henikstein´schen Hauses, Arie aus „Mädchentreue“ von Mozart.

    23.2.1823 Drittes Gesellschafts-Concert, Christus am Oehlberge“ von Beethoven (mit Tietze und Schoberlechner).



    1823 Copenhagen


    20.1.1824 Königl. Theater Kopenhagen, Arie aus „Donna del Lago“ (Rossini)

    1824-1825 Auftritte am Hof in Kopenhagen im Rahmen von Veranstaltungen der königl. Familie.

    Februar/März 1824 Königl. Theater Kopenhagen, Rezitativ und Arie „La donna del Lago“ Duett und Rezitativ mit Chor „Aureliano in Palmyra“ beide Rossini, Rezitativ und Arie aus „Die Hochzeit des Figaro“ von Mozart.

    17. und 18.3.1824 Konzert, u.a. Arie aus „Barbier von Sevilla“ von Rossini.

    22.3.1824 Konzert für das Blindeninstitut u.a. Rossini.

    11.5.1825 Königl. Theater Kopenhagen, Vokal- Instrumentalkonzert Cavatine und Rezitativ von Simon Mayer, Cavatine von Rossini, ein Lied von Siboni (T: Johann Ludwig Heiberg) Abschiedskonzert vor Abreise nach Wien.

    April 1824-Mai 1825 Konzerte, Duette, Arien u.a. Rossini (z.T. mit Peppina Siboni).



    Sweden


    (Inter alia) Stockholm

    June-September 1825



    Vienna


    17.2.1826 Wien, Niederösterr. Ständ. Saal: „Großes Konzert der Josephine Fröhlich“ Arien aus Rossinis „La Cenerentola“ und „La Donna del Lago“, Variationen über Thema von Caraffa (komponiert von Giuseppe Siboni). Wiener Zeitschrift, 25. Februar 1826, S. 191.

    Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung Nr. 13. 29. März 1826. S. 218-219.



    Prague


    June 1826



    Vienna


    September 1826

    1827 bei Kieswetter, Händel „Timoteo“.

    6.5.1827 im großen Saal der Universität Wien „Musikalische Akademie zum Besten der bedürftigen Witwen und Waisen hiesiger juridischer Facultätsmitglieder“, Arie mit Chor aus der Oper „Annibale in Bitinia“ Nicolini. Der Sammler Nr. 77. 28. Juni 1827. S. 308. Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung Nr. 26, Juni 1827, Sp. 453-454.

    11.8.1827 „Ständchen“ D 920 von Franz Schubert (T: Franz Grillparzer)

    24. 1.1828 Abend-Unterhaltung “Ständchen“ D 920 “ von Franz Schubert (T: Franz Grillparzer).

    Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung Leipzig. 26.3.1828.

    17.2.1828 Konzert des Herrn Bernhard Romberg im Saal der Niederösterreichischen Landstände. Rossini.

    Der Sammler 26. 28.2.1828.S. 104.

    20.3.1828 Abend-Unterhaltung Frl. Fröhlich, u.a. Rossini.

    26.3.1828, „Privat-Concert“ von Franz Schubert, Tuchlauben, „Ständchen“ (Franz Schubert T: Franz Grillparzer)

    Wiener Zeitschrift am 25.3.1828.

    Wiener Allgemeine Theaterzeitung. 25.3.1828.

    Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung Leipzig.7.5.1828.



    Venice


    March 1829, Teatro San Benedetto, Rossini.

    19.6.1829, Rossini.



    Milan


    15.1.1831 as ‘Giuseppina Fröhlich’ Osmino in Il Romito di Provenza by Pietro Generali.



    Vienna


    6.11.1831 Large concert for the opening of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’s newly built hall underneath Tuchlauben Nr. 558, Rossini

    1.12.1831 Abend-Unterhaltung, Rossini.

    23.2.1831 Abend-Unterhaltungen, Rossini.

    1.3.1833 Abend-Unterhaltungen, J.P. Pixis, Donizetti.

    Sources

    Selection


    A Documents from Josephine Fröhlich


    [Albumblatt of „Josefa Fröhlich“ Vienna, January 28th, 1860 in] Zur Feyer des 100sten. Quartett-Abend des Herrn Josef Hellmesberger von seinen Verehrern 1860 [Gratulationskassette für Joseph Hellmesberger]. ÖNB


    „Erklärung“. In: Wiener Theaterzeitung 24. Juni 1835. S. 500.


    Letters in Vienna Library

    more on Sources less on Sources

    B Sources (chronological 1824-1964)


    [Castelli, Ignaz Franz]. „Tagebuch aus Wien (Fortsetzung)“. In: Dresdner Abend-Zeitung Nr. 33. 7. Februar 1824. S. 132.


    „Ehrenauszeichnung eines Zöglings des hiesigen Conservatoriums“. In: Monatbericht der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde des Österreichischen Kaiserstaates VI. 1829. S. 96.


    „Aus Wien“ [Bericht über Hauskonzerte bei Raphael Georg Kiesewetter]. In: Jahrbücher des Deutschen Nationalvereins für Musik und die Wissenschaft. 4. 1842. S. 311-312.


    Kiesewetter, Raphael Georg. Galerie der alten Contrapunctisten; eine Auswahl aus ihren Werken, nach der Zeitfolge geordnet zu deutlicher Anschauung des Fortschreitens der Kunst; von den frühesten Versuchen harmonischer Verbindungen bis zum Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts und dem Aufblühen der neapolitanischen Schule, als der Periode der neueren Musik: Alles in verständlichen Partituren aus dem Archiv alter Musik des k. k. Hofraths R. G. Kiesewetter Edl. von Wiesenbrunn von ihm eigens zusammengestellt: eine Zugabe zu seinem Haupt-Catalog. Wien: Selbstverlag, 1847.


    Bernsdorf, Eduard. Neues Universal-Lexikon der Tonkunst: für Künstler, Kunstfreunde und alle Gebildeten, Band 2. Dresden: Schaefer, 1857.


    Küstner, Karl Theodor von; Schauer, Gustav. Album des königl. Schauspiels und der Königl. Oper zu Berlin unter der Leitung von August Wilhelm Iffland, Karl Grafen von Brühl, Wilhelm Grafen von Redern und Karl Theodor von Küstner: für die Zeit von 1796 bis 1851. Berlin: Schauer, 1858.


    Sonnleithner, Leopold von. „Musikalische Skizzen aus Alt-Wien IV“. In: Recensionen und Mittheilungen über Theater, Musik und bildende Kunst. Nr. 12. 23. März 1862. S. 177-180.


    Böckling, Wilhelm von. „Musikalische Skizzen aus Alt-Wien“. In: Recensionen und Mittheilungen über Theater, Musik und bildende Kunst. Nr. 24. 15. Juni 1862. S. 369-375.


    Breuning, Gerhard v. „Aus Grillparzers Wohnung“. In: Neue Freie Presse Nr. 7266. 19. November 1884. S. 1-3 und Neue Freie Presse Nr. 7267. 20. November 1884. S. 1-4.


    Sauer, August. „Briefe von Katharina Fröhlich an ihre Schwestern“. In: Jahrbuch der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft 4. 1894. S. 83-118.


    Najmájer, Marie von. „Bei den Schwestern Fröhlich“. In: Jahrbuch der Grillparzergesellschaft 14. Jahrgang. 1904. S. 141-148.


    Deutsch, Otto Erich. Franz Schubert. Sein Leben in Bildern. Zweite Auflage. Die Dokumente seines Lebens und Schaffens. Dritter Band. München: Georg Müller, 1913.


    Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie von. Meine Erinnerungen an Grillparzer. In: Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach: [Gesammelte Werke in drei Bänden. Bd. 3] Erzählungen. Autobiographische Schriften. München 1956–1958. S. 886-917. Erstdruck: In: Westermanns deutsche Monatshefte. Bd. 119.Braunschweig: Westermann, 1915/16.


    Güttenberger, Heinrich. „Seine kleine Nachtigall. Ein Blatt zur Grillparzer Tradition (Erinnerungen der Sängerin Hermine Weiß, geb. Vocati, Schülerin von Josephine Fröhlich)“. In: Heimatfahrten von heute und gestern […]. Wien: Österreichischer Bundesverlag, 1925, S. 278-287.


    Deutsch, Otto Erich. Schubert. Die Erinnerungen seiner Freunde. Leipzig 1957. Unveränderter Nachdruck der Auflage. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1983.


    Deutsch, Otto Erich. Schubert. Die Dokumente seines Lebens gesammelt und erläutert von Otto Erich Deutsch. Franz Schubert. Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke. Serie VIII: Supplement. Band 5. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1964.



    C Secondary Literature (chronological)


    Hilmar, Ernst. Schubert. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1989.


    Schepelern, Gerhard. Giuseppe Siboni: Sangeren syngemesteren […]. Valby: Amadeus, 1989.


    Kaufmann, Erika (Hg.). 175 Jahre Musikverein für Steiermark. Graz, 1815-1990. Graz: Musikverein für Steiermark, 1990.


    Haas, Gerlinde. „Huldigung einer Tonsetzerin“. In: Studien zur Musikwissenschaft, 41. Bd. (1992). S. 179-196.


    Clive, Peter. Schubert and His World. A Biographical Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. S. 50-54.


    Clive, Peter. Schubert and His World. A Biographical Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. S. 50-54.


    Hilmar, Ernst und Margret Jestremski (Hg.). Schubert-Lexikon. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1997.


    Elmar Worgull. Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller skizziert Franz Schubert im Freundeskreis. Ikonographie und kompositorische Spezifika eines unikaten Bilddokuments. In: Schubert durch die Brille. 18. 1997. S. 103-124.


    Lorenz, Michael. „'Viele glaubten und glauben noch, absichtlich.' – Der Tod der Ludovica Siboni“. In: Schubert durch die Brille 23. Tutzing: Schneider, 1999. S. 47-74.


    Blaha, Johanna. Die Schwestern Fröhlich. Dissertation Universität Wien. 2002.


    Boisits, Barbara. „Fröhlich, Schwestern“. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon. Rudolf Flotzinger (Hg.). Band 1. Wien: Verl. der Österr. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2002. S. 498-499.


    Waidelich, Till Gerrit. „Fröhlich, Familie“. In: MGG Personenteil 7. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2002. Sp. 189-190.


    Hilmar, Ernst und Margret Jestremski (Hg.). Schubert-Enzyklopädie. Band 1. Tutzing: Schneider, 2004.



    D Image


    Portraits


    Barbara Bogner (geb. Fröhlich). Lithographische Skizze. Deutsch 1913, S. 297.


    [Thugut?] Heinrich. Kreidezeichnung. Deutsch 1913, S. 299. Dort fälschlicherweise als „Katharina“ bezeichnet.


    Anonym. Linksportrait. Schattenriss [o.J.] http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/Pages/ImageDetail.aspx?p_iBildID=3917930



    Group Picture


    Josephine Fröhlich [?] und Schubert am Klavier, weitere vier Freunde Schuberts (For identification of the people see Worgull 1997.)

    Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Sketches, around 1827. Hilmar, 1989, p. 69.



    Group Pictures with the Sisters (from left to right)

    Betty, Josephine, Katharina

    Hans Temple (1857-1931), Eine Schubertiade bei Ritter von Spaun - Wood engraving from a photograph by V. A. Heck after a painting by Hans Temple (c. 1890). Original lost. Reproduced in: A. Bär u. a. (Hg.). Bildersaal deutscher Geschichte, Stuttgart Berlin Leipzig, 1890 und Bühne und Welt 9. 1907. Hilmar 1989, S. 62. Beethoven-Haus Bonn.

    http://www.beethoven-haus-bonn.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=&template=opac_bibliothek_de&_opac=bild_de.pl&_t_maske=x&_dokid=bi:i3976

    the same as „Franz Schubert am Klavier, und sein Freundeskreis im Jahre 1826“. Heliogravure von J. Blechinger nach einem Gemälde von Hans Temple.

    http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/Pages/ImageDetail.aspx?p_iBildID=13067190


    Katharina, Sophie Müller, Anna, Barbara, Josephine Fröhlich:

    Julius Schmid. Ein Schubert-Abend in einem Wiener Bürgerhause. Ölgemälde (from 1897 for Schuberts 100th birthday). Original: Wiener Schubertbund. Foto in Hilmar p. 193, Preliminary sketch (charcoal) Hilmar 1989, p. 63.


    Johann Michael Vogl, Franz Schubert, Josephine und Katharina Fröhlich.


    Julius Schmid. Lünette im Kammermusiksaal, Grazer Congress, in Graz. Kaufmann 1990, S. 168-170.


    Franz Schubert, Josephine and presumably Barbara and Katharina Fröhlich

    Hans Schließmann. Drawing. Vienna Museum. Hilmar 1989, S. 56 „Schubert begleitet die Schwestern Fröhlich am Klavier“.

    Research

    Josephine Fröhlich, like her sisters, is often mentioned in research in connection with Schubert and Grillparzer, especially when studying the role of women in these famous men’s cultural surroundings. This categorization falls short, however, and usually leaves out the singer’s own cultural activities. Josephine Fröhlich was one of the best known and most respected singers in Vienna, and through her networking with famous personalities of her time, she made a contribution to Viennese musical life beyond that of a singer. In addition, she led an independent, financially stable life as an unmarried woman.

    Need for research

    The details of cultural norms in the Biedermeier Period, including musical friendships from the perspective of gender remains to be studied.

    It is not yet known in what form Josephine Fröhlich’s lessons with Giuseppe Siboni in Vienna and Copenhagen took place and what effect he had on her own teaching methods. The singer’s career trajectory is also under-researched, specifically, that she interrupted her promising career as a singer and dedicated herself more and more to teaching. To what extent this was connected not just to the opera business as such, but also to her stage fright, as indicated in the sources, and/or the changing vocal ideals in opera, remains speculation. Little information is available about Josephine Fröhlich’s singing lessons and students. The role of her close ties with her sisters in planning her career and in her private life would also be worth investigating.

    Normdaten

    Virtual International Authority File (VIAF): 80419366
    Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (GND): 136000703
    Wikipedia-Personensuche

    Autor/innen

    Ingeborg Harer


    Bearbeitungsstand

    Redaktion: Silke Wenzel
    Zuerst eingegeben am 12.12.2015
    Zuletzt bearbeitet am 17.04.2018


    Empfohlene Zitierweise

    Ingeborg Harer, Artikel „Josephine Fröhlich“, in: MUGI. Musikvermittlung und Genderforschung: Lexikon und multimediale Präsentationen, hg. von Beatrix Borchard und Nina Noeske, Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg, 2003ff. Stand vom 17.4.2018
    URL: http://mugi.hfmt-hamburg.de/artikel/Josephine_Fröhlich