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  • Isabella d' Este Gonzaga

    by Sabine Meine
    Tiziano: Ritratto di Isabella d’Este
    Names:
    Isabella d' Este Gonzaga
    Birth name: Isabella d' Este
    Lebensdaten:
    b in Ferrara, Norditalien
    d in Mantua, Norditalien
    Activities:
    Marchioness, Patron, Music Lover, Art Collector, Sponsor
    Characteristic statement:

    “la primadonna del mondo”


    Niccolò da Correggio, courtier, poet and soldier in Ferrara, along with other courtiers under Isabella d’Este Gonzaga. (Letter from Alessandro da Baesso to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga, 24 November, 1494. Archivio di Stato Mantova, Fondo Gonzaga.)



    “Her abilities, if contemporaneous accounts are to be believed, were outstanding not in the simple fact that she was a moderately proficient amateur musician, but rather in the degree of her accomplishments and in the central role music took in her life. Her own letters and those of others show plainly that music rapidly became for her an idée fixe, and, as she mastered the art, an essential part of her self-image.”


    (William Prizer: Una ‘virtù molto conveniente a madonne’: Isabella d’Este Gonzaga as a musician. In: The Journal of Musicology Vol. XVII 1, Winter 1999, pp. 10-49, p. 12.)


    Profile

    As the daughter of Duke Ercole I d’Este, Isabella d’Este received a comprehensive musical education and, as the wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, she built the court of Mantua into a centre for music and art, where she herself played a central role. Through her contacts to well-known poets, courtiers and (mostly Italian-speaking) musicians, she especially promoted the ‘Frottola’ genre: strophic songs in the vernacular, mostly performed to lute accompaniment. The popularity and development of this form in court culture between 1500 and 1520 benefited from the new methods of music printing that came about at this time. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s interest in Petrarch and Petrarchan poetry ensured that a high standard of poetry and literature was adhered to.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s patronage of music is exemplary for a Renaissance ruler who had no resident court musicians at her disposal, but rather various individual soloists or ensemble musicians within her court and who played music herself. Her high musical standards and the central role they played in how she presented herself at court exceeded that which was expected of a courtly lady at the time. As such, her musical activity had to remain as virtuous and unobtrusive as possible; a lady of court was only permitted to display her musical talent by invitation (Castiglione III, 8).

    Cities and countries

    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga grew up at a time when the court of Ferrara was nationally renowned for its sophisticated musical culture. She maintained her relationships there after taking up her position in Mantua, from where she nurtured further connections to Rome, Naples, Venice, Milan and other surrounding courts.

    Biography

    The daughter of Ercole I, Duke of Ferrara and Modena, and Eleonora d’Aragona, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga was born in Ferrara in 1474 into one of the foremost royal families of the Italian Renaissance. She took singing lessons from Johannes Martini (also known as Zoanne, Ionnes Martino), a recognised cantor in her father’s court ensemble, which she continued in Mantua following her wedding in 1490. She also played a keyboard instrument, the lute (vihuela da mano), the lira da braccio as well as the viola da gamba.


    In 1490, at the age of sixteen, she was married to Francesco II Gonzaga and moved to Mantua, where as Marchioness for nearly four decades, she raised the prestige of the Mantuan court through an all-encompassing patronage of music, art and poetry. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga held her own court in Mantua. Among her musicians was Bartolomeo Tromboncino, a leading ‘frottolist’ (singer, lute player and composer) at that time, who served as her personal musician from 1490 until 1505. Marchetto Cara followed – another a renowned frottolist, who also served in her husband Francesco II Gonzaga’s court. Also under her employment was the lute and viola player Testagrossa (between 1495 and 1503), an organist, a keyboardist and an anonymous piper and drummer, along with travelling musicians who visited her court.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s self-image and enthusiasm for music was nurtured by her personal contact with writers and courtiers within the courts at Mantua and Ferrara, or those who moved from court to court and who often wrote poems in honour of her marriage. These included, for example, the writers Niccolò da Correggio, Giangiorgio Trissino, Antonio Tebaldeo, Galeotto del Carretto, the humanist Mario Equicola (actually Caccialupi) and Pietro Bembo.


    Upon her marriage Isabella d’Este Gonzaga was assigned her own apartments within the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, from which she conscientiously set about supporting the arts. She received guests to view her art collection and held musical performances and poetry readings. In the same way, she furnished the spaces with music-related wall décor, coats of arms, emblems and paintings.


    Festivals and celebrations played an important role in cultural and political life at court, inter alia the yearly carnival as well as weddings, which Isabella d’Este Gonzaga used as opportunities to present herself and her activities. With the death of Francesco II Gonzaga in 1519, his first son to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga, Federico II Gonzaga (1500-1540), succeeded him as Marquess, going on to receive the title of Duke in 1530. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga bore five other children. She died in 1539.


    (less biography)


    The daughter of Ercole I, the second Duke of Ferrara and Modena (1431-1505), and Eleonora d’Aragona (died 1493), Isabella d’Este Gonzaga was born in Ferrara on 17 March, 1474 into one of the foremost royal families of the Italian Renaissance. The patronage of music had been a priority for the Estes for centuries; Duke Leonello d’Este had established an ensemble in the 1440s to raise his court’s prestige against the much more powerful courts beyond the Alps. Music won even greater prestige as a representative art form and an educational heritage under the reign of Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s father, Ercole d’Este (1471-1505) and the influence of her mother, Eleonora d’Aragona (who was accustomed to rigorous support for music from her time at the Sicilian royal court in Naples). From the 1480s the court ensemble (‘Kapelle’) at Ferrara was the largest in Italy. All of the royal children (Isabella, Ippolito – Duke of Ferrara from 1505 – and Beatrice) received musical training. Isabella took singing lessons from a renowned cantor in her father’s court ensemble, Johannes Martini (also known as Zoanno, Ioannes Martino). After her marriage in 1490, she continued her singing instruction in Mantua, initially with the French soprano Carlo Lannoy from 1492, briefly with two contraltos, and later with another soprano, which was most certainly Isabella d’Este’s voice type. In contrast to the art of improvisation, which demanded real professional proficiency, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga learned to sing from sheet music according to the written ‘oltremontani’ tradition, which came from the musicians beyond the Alps, mostly of Flemish origin. She also played a keyboard instrument, presumably taking lessons on the clavichord with the Ferrara organist and so-called ‘La Coglia’, Girolamo da Sestola, between 1490 and 1493. The lute, often the first instrument in a musical education, was familiar to Isabella d’Este from her time in Ferrara, where the famous lutenists Pietro Bono and Rainaldo were employed during her youth, however she first learned to play the lute once she was married, taking lessons with the renowned lutenist Testagrossa, who was, at least in the period between 1491 and 1503, in Mantua from time to time. Her instrument was a ‘vihuela da mano’, which the lute maker Lorenzo da Pavia ordered for her in the late 1490s. She rounded out her musical education with string instruments: the ‘lira da braccio’ and the ‘viola da gamba’.


    Having been promised to Francesco II Gonzaga at the age of six, her wedding took place in Ferrara ten years later in 1490, marking the beginning of an almost 40-year reign as Marchioness of Mantua, where she raised the prestige of the Mantuan court through comprehensive patronage of music, art and poetry.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga ran her own household in Mantua. Among her musicians was the most famous frottolist (that is, singer, lutenist and composer) of the time, Bartolomeo Tromboncino. He arrived shortly after her wedding in 1490 and remained in Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s service as her personal musician until 1505. Marchetto Cara, another renowned frottolist, was also in Mantua from 1494 onwards, initially as court musician to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s husband, Francesco Gonzaga. Following Tromboncino’s departure for the neighbouring and rival court of Lucrezia Borgia (Isabella’s sister-in-law) in Ferrara, Cara took over as Isabella d’Este’s personal musician, although he continued to serve in the court of Francesco Gonzaga as well. He was appointed music director in the marquess’ court in 1510 and worked in Mantua until his death in 1525. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s household is also known to have included the well-known lutenist and viola player Testagrossa (between 1495 and 1503), an organist, a keyboard player and an anonymous piper and drummer. It can furthermore be assumed that Isabella d’Este Gonzaga drew upon the musicians in her husband’s court for special occasions.


    At the beginning of 1497, following the death of her sister Beatrice d’Este Sforza, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga and her husband were able to obtain the poet and musician Serafino Ciminelli dall’Aquila (l’Aquilano) from the court of Milan, securing him for one and a half years. The Gonzaga’s had hired him once before for the carnival season of January 1495, where he was the author and performer of a political piece – “a Rappresentatione allegorica”.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s patronage of music and sense of identity thrived on her personal contact with renowned writers and courtiers in Mantua and Ferrara, as well as those travelling from court to court, who often composed in her honour. Extensive correspondence and tribute poetry testify to this. The court poet at Ferrara, Niccolò da Correggio (1450-1508) played a central role in establishing Petrarchan poetry in northern Italy. Four of his sonnets, for which the original manuscript has been lost, refer directly to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga as a lute player. Mario Equicola (actually Caccialupi) is considered to have been the most trusted adviser amongst the humanists in the Marchioness’ circles and, prior to entering her service as Latin teacher and secretary in 1508, he wrote a treatise “De mulieribus” [“On women”] in 1501, in which he defends the notion of women in the tradition of Boccaccios, dedicating the lengthiest of his portraits to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga also took pains to come into contact with Pietro Bembo. Upon her invitation, he attended one of her musical performances in Mantua in 1505, whereupon he sent her some of his poems to set to music and perform. In Giangiorgio Trissino’s “Ritratti” (written in 1514 and published in 1524), Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s musical profile and patronage as well as her own music making are presented as the highlight.


    Upon her marriage Isabella d’Este Gonzaga was assigned her own apartments within the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, from which she conscientiously set about supporting the arts. Initially these apartments were located in the ‘piano nobile’ of the Castello di San Giorgio, and from 1515 she undertook the expansion of her rooms on the ground floor of the ‘corte vecchia’, which was completed in 1522. Central to the design were two rooms, a ‘studiolo’ and a ‘grotta’, which displayed intricate wooden panelling and illusionary inlays, giving the impression of intimacy and scholarship. It was here that Isabella d’Este Gonzaga received guests visiting her art collection and attending musical performances and poetry readings. She deliberately decorated these rooms with music-related wall furnishings, coats of arms, emblems and paintings, for which she engaged Andrea Mantegna, Pietro Perugino and Giancristoforo Romano, among others.


    Festivals and celebrations played an important role in cultural and political life at court, including, inter alia, the yearly carnival and weddings, which Isabella d’Este Gonzaga used as opportunities to present herself and her activities. In February 1502, during the wedding celebrations for her sister-in-law Lucrezia Borgia’s marriage to her brother Alfonso d’Este in Ferrara, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga performed with Marchetto Cara for the French ambassador, where she wore clothing that represented the musical symbolism of her personal apartments.


    In times of war, during which Francesco II Gonzaga mostly fought against France for the Venetians, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga took on her husband’s political duties. Following his return to Mantua in 1513, Francesco II Gonzaga kept Isabella d’Este Gonzaga far away from state matters. With the death of Francesco II Gonzaga in 1519, his first son to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga, Federico II Gonzaga (1500-1540), succeeded him as Marquess, going on to receive the title of Duke in 1530. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga had 5 other children: the eldest daughter Eleonora (1494-1570) married Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the Duke of Urbino; Ercole (1505-1563) was made a cardinal in 1527; Ferrante (1507-1557) pursued a military career; and the two remaining daughters Ippolita (1501-1570) and Livia (1508-1569) lived in a cloister. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga died in Mantua in 1539.

    more on Biography less on Biography

    The daughter of Ercole I, the second Duke of Ferrara and Modena (1431-1505), and Eleonora d’Aragona (died 1493), Isabella d’Este Gonzaga was born in Ferrara on 17 March, 1474 into one of the foremost royal families of the Italian Renaissance. The patronage of music had been a priority for the Estes for centuries; Duke Leonello d’Este had established an ensemble in the 1440s to raise his court’s prestige against the much more powerful courts beyond the Alps. Music won even greater prestige as a representative art form and an educational heritage under the reign of Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s father, Ercole d’Este (1471-1505) and the influence of her mother, Eleonora d’Aragona (who was accustomed to rigorous support for music from her time at the Sicilian royal court in Naples). From the 1480s the court ensemble (Kapelle) at Ferrara was the largest in Italy. All of the royal children (Isabella, Ippolito – Duke of Ferrara from 1505 – and Beatrice) received musical training. Isabella took singing lessons from a renowned cantor in her father’s court ensemble, Johannes Martini (also known as Zoanno, Ioannes Martino). After her marriage in 1490, she continued her singing instruction in Mantua, initially with the French soprano Carlo Lannoy from 1492, briefly with two contraltos, and later with another soprano, which was most certainly Isabella d’Este’s voice type. In contrast to the art of improvisation, which demanded real professional proficiency, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga learned to sing from sheet music according to the written oltremontani tradition, which came from the musicians beyond the Alps, mostly of Flemish origin. She also played a keyboard instrument, presumably taking lessons on the clavichord with the Ferrara organist and so-called La Coglia, Girolamo da Sestola, between 1490 and 1493. The lute, often the first instrument in a musical education, was familiar to Isabella d’Este from her time in Ferrara, where the famous lutenists Pietro Bono and Rainaldo were employed during her youth, however she first learned to play the lute once she was married, taking lessons with the renowned lutenist Testagrossa, who was, at least in the period between 1491 and 1503, in Mantua from time to time. Her instrument was a vihuela da mano, which the lute maker Lorenzo da Pavia ordered for her in the late 1490s. She rounded out her musical education with string instruments: the lira da braccio and the viola da gamba.


    Having been promised to Francesco II Gonzaga at the age of six, her wedding took place in Ferrara ten years later in 1490, marking the beginning of an almost 40-year reign as Marchioness of Mantua, where she raised the prestige of the Mantuan court through comprehensive patronage of music, art and poetry.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga ran her own household in Mantua. Among her musicians was the most famous frottolist (that is, singer, lutenist and composer) of the time, Bartolomeo Tromboncino. He arrived shortly after her wedding in 1490 and remained in Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s service as her personal musician until 1505. Marchetto Cara, another renowned frottolist, was also in Mantua from 1494 onwards, initially as court musician to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s husband, Francesco Gonzaga. Following Tromboncino’s departure for the neighbouring and rival court of Lucrezia Borgia (Isabella’s sister-in-law) in Ferrara, Cara took over as Isabella d’Este’s personal musician, although he continued to serve in the court of Francesco Gonzaga as well. He was appointed music director in the marquess’ court in 1510 and worked in Mantua until his death in 1525. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s household is also known to have included the well-known lutenist and viola player Testagrossa (between 1495 and 1503), an organist, a keyboard player and an anonymous piper and drummer. It can furthermore be assumed that Isabella d’Este Gonzaga drew upon the musicians in her husband’s court for special occasions.


    At the beginning of 1497, following the death of her sister Beatrice d’Este Sforza, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga and her husband were able to obtain the poet and musician Serafino Ciminelli dall’Aquila (l’Aquilano) from the court of Milan, securing him for one and a half years. The Gonzaga’s had hired him once before for the carnival season of January 1495, where he was the author and performer of a political piece - a "Rappresentatione allegorica".


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s patronage of music and sense of identity thrived on her personal contact with renowned writers and courtiers in Mantua and Ferrara, as well as those travelling from court to court, who often composed in her honour. Extensive correspondence and tribute poetry testify to this. The court poet at Ferrara, Niccolò da Correggio (1450-1508) played a central role in establishing Petrarchan poetry in northern Italy. Four of his sonnets, for which the original manuscript has been lost, refer directly to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga as a lute player. Mario Equicola (actually Caccialupi) is considered to have been the most trusted adviser amongst the humanists in the Marchioness’ circles and, prior to entering her service as Latin teacher and secretary in 1508, he wrote a treatise ‘De mulieribus’ (‘On women’) in 1501, in which he defends the notion of women in the tradition of Boccaccios, dedicating the lengthiest of his portraits to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga.


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga also took pains to come into contact with Pietro Bembo. Upon her invitation, he attended one of her musical performances in Mantua in 1505, whereupon he sent her some of his poems to set to music and perform. In Giangiorgio Trissino’s "Ritratti" (written in 1514 and published in 1524), Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s musical profile and patronage as well as her own music making are presented as the highlight.


    Upon her marriage Isabella d’Este Gonzaga was assigned her own apartments within the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, from which she conscientiously set about supporting the arts. Initially these apartments were located in the piano nobile of the Castello di San Giorgio, and from 1515 she undertook the expansion of her rooms on the ground floor of the corte vecchia, which was completed in 1522. Central to the design were two rooms, a studiolo and a grotta, which displayed intricate wooden panelling and illusionary inlays, giving the impression of intimacy and scholarship. It was here that Isabella d’Este Gonzaga received guests visiting her art collection and attending musical performances and poetry readings. She deliberately decorated these rooms with music-related wall furnishings, coats of arms, emblems and paintings, for which she engaged Andrea Mantegna, Pietro Perugino and Giancristoforo Romano, among others.


    Festivals and celebrations played an important role in cultural and political life at court, including, inter alia, the yearly carnival and weddings, which Isabella d’Este Gonzaga used as opportunities to present herself and her activities. In February 1502, during the wedding celebrations for her sister-in-law Lucrezia Borgia’s marriage to her brother Alfonso d’Este in Ferrara, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga performed with Marchetto Cara for the French ambassador, where she wore clothing that represented the musical symbolism of her personal apartments.


    In times of war, during which Francesco II Gonzaga mostly fought against France for the Venetians, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga took on her husband’s political duties. Following his return to Mantua in 1513, Francesco II Gonzaga kept Isabella d’Este Gonzaga far away from state matters. With the death of Francesco II Gonzaga in 1519, his first son to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga, Federico II Gonzaga (1500-1540), succeeded him as Marquess, going on to receive the title of Duke in 1530. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga had 5 other children: the eldest daughter Eleonora (1494-1570) married Francesco Maria I della Rovere, the Duke of Urbino; Ercole (1505-1563) was made a cardinal in 1527; Ferrante (1507-1557) pursued a military career; and the two remaining daughters Ippolita (1501-1570) and Livia (1508-1569) lived in a cloister. Isabella d’Este Gonzaga died in Mantua in 1539.

    Appreciation

    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s musical activity corresponded perfectly to the ‘instrumentarium’ required for secular music and courtly virtue, as set out by Baldessare Catigliones in his “Buch vom Hoffman” (published in 1528, but written between 1514 -1518). She sang (from sheet music), played the lute as well as string instruments, and learned to play a keyboard instrument. Her music-making was integrated into her overall identity at court, which distinguished Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s patronage from other northern Italian courts and was, therefore, of cultural and political interest. Through the poetry dedicated to her, musical arrangements, her apartments and iconography, music strengthened an image that, in intensity and character, far exceeded that which was expected of courtly women. Moreover, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga portrayed herself, as in antiquity, as a Regent, drawing strength from music in times of peace. The competition with neighbouring courts, including those connected through family or friendship, was high; contacts were maintained through correspondence, news, visits, parties and not least the exchange of musicians.


    The foundations for Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s musical patronage were laid down in Ferrara, where education was of great importance for children of the nobility. As patron of an ensemble that was for some time the largest in Italy, Ercole I d’Este promoted music as a vital medium for courtly representation and an essential instrument of education. Following her wedding in 1490, the proximity of Mantua and Ferrara proved useful to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga in establishing her court as a centre for music and art. Musicians, poets and artists were brought into her permanent service or engaged on a contractual basis, but also came under obligation according the courtly practice of favour [favore].


    Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s passion for music and her interest in sophisticated Petrarchan poetry had an influence on the ‘frottola’ genre. In the eleven frottola albums of Ottaviano Petrucci that came out between 1504 and 1514 (in Venice), the arrangements of Bartolomeo Tromboncino (court musician to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga from 1491 until (latest) 1506) and Marchetto Cara (court musician in Mantua from 1494 until 1525) make up the majority of the art form. How the more complex poem structures actually influenced the development of the frottola genre can be seen in the numerous Petrachan settings included in the final Petrucci album (No. 11 from 1514) as well as in the Bembo poems also published in the eleventh and seventh Petrucci albums.


    Promoted by Isabella d’Este Gonzaga, the frottola genre was the first secular genre in the Italian language to appear in printed form, and which developed through the interplay of poetic and musical impulses. Her music promotion can thereby be seen as having prepared the way for the development of the subsequent Madrigal genre, which came about around 1530 in other places (Florence, Rome) and was represented by other musicians.

    Sources

    Research

    The fact that Ferrara and Mantua established themselves as new centres for court music in the fifteenth century was attributed to the personal influence of Isabella d’Este Gonzaga in historical literature relatively early on. Walter Rubsamen showed her connection to various writers and humanists, and a consequent ennobling of ‘poesie per musica’, which in the context of Petrarchan style brought about an evolution of a genre, and to which Claudio Gallico summarily attributed Petrucci’s frottola collections. (Since the beginning of the 1960s, Gallico had dedicated himself specially to Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s connection to poesia per musica, correcting Alfred Einstein’s theses on the musical setting of one her texts and writing a critical commentary to a collection of Mantua poems to be set to music.) They were all able to build upon the pioneering work of Luzio and Renier, important specialists of the Gonzaga court at the time and of the Bembo researcher Vittorio Cian, all three of whom were comprehensively familiar with the Archivio Gonzaga. William Prizer eventually presented the musical profile of the marchioness in detail, researched her practical musical education based on the original sources and, above all, clearly showed that her musical activity and that of the musicians she supported was fundamental to the marchioness’ identity.

    Need for research

    Although the importance of Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s musical patronage had already been recognised in musicological research by the 1940s, individual studies relating to the following aspects of cultural history between 1500 and 1530 are still missing:


    • The compositional development of secular vocal music in the Italian language during the first decades of the printing system.

    • The development of language policy towards the normalisation of the Italian language, as it appears in Bembo’s “Prose della volgar lingua”.

    • The role of noblewomen and regents in popularising secular music in the vernacular (few court ensembles under female regents concerned themselves with secular, small-ensemble music).

    • The question of the exchange and competition amongst comparable patronesses. The research of lesser-known contemporary patronesses remains largely outstanding, e.g. Eleonora d’Aragona Este (Isabella’s mother), Beatrice d’Este Sforza/Milan (Isabella’s sister), Elisabetta Gonzaga/Urbino (Isabella’s sister-in-law), Lucrezia Borgia/Ferrara (Isabella’s sister-in-law), but also the relationships between the courts of female regents and those of their male counterparts.


    The comparison with other northern Italian courts may simplify the source material: although Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s correspondence is very extensive, mostly well preserved and legible, financial records are missing, allowing only a partial understanding of the structure of her court. Conversely, in the case of Lucrezia Borgia, comprehensive financial records over several years exist while her correspondence remains relatively fruitless. Thanks to art and literature research, Isabella d’Este Gonzaga’s activity as an art collector and patron has already been widely documented.

    Normdaten

    Virtual International Authority File (VIAF): 19679190
    Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (GND): 11855591X
    Library of Congress (LCCN): n50082054
    Wikipedia-Personensuche

    Autor/innen

    Sabine Meine, die Grundseite wurde im Januar 2004 verfasst.

    Translation: Trevor Pichanick


    Bearbeitungsstand

    Redaktion: Sophie Fetthauer und Meredith Nicollai
    Zuerst eingegeben am 26.05.2004
    Zuletzt bearbeitet am 24.11.2017


    Empfohlene Zitierweise

    Sabine Meine, Artikel „Isabella d' Este Gonzaga“ (English version, translated by Trevor Pichanick), in: MUGI. Musikvermittlung und Genderforschung: Lexikon und multimediale Präsentationen, hg. von Beatrix Borchard und Nina Noeske, Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg, 2003ff. Stand vom 24.11.2017
    URL: http://mugi.hfmt-hamburg.de/artikel/Isabella_d\'_Este_Gonzaga