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  • Anna Fröhlich

    by Ingeborg Harer
    Anna Fröhlich, Portrait von Emanuel Peter, 1830
    Names:
    Anna Fröhlich
    Birth name: Maria Anna Fröhlich
    Lebensdaten:
    b in Wien, Österreich
    d in Wien, Österreich

    Activities:
    Singer (Soprano), Pianist, Singing Teacher, Piano Teacher, Patron, Correspondent
    Characteristic statement:

    „Die Mitwirkenden [im Hause Kiesewetter] waren und sind gewöhnlich Künstler vom Fache oder doch ausgezeichnete Dilettanten der Hauptstadt [Wien]. Der weibliche Chor – Soprani und Alti – besteht aus den Gesangsschülerinnen der höhern Classe des hiesigen Conservatoriums unter der unmittelbaren Leitung ihrer Lehrerin, des Fräuleins Nanette Fröhlich [d.i. Anna Fröhlich]; die Solostimmen wurden in der letztern Zeit den Privat-Schülerinnen der Letzern oder ihrer Schwester Josephine Fröhlich anvertraut, und dieses Vertrauen nie getäuscht, jedesmal glänzend gerechtfertigt. Ueberhaupt dürften die vier Schwestern Fröhlich für die Kunst, namentlich für den Gesang, mehr gewirkt haben als so manche Europa=berühmte Amazone von der Kehle, und wurden in dankbarer Anerkennung ihrer regen Theilnahme, ihrer unermüdlichen Bestrebungen für diese classischen Concerte von allen Mitgliedern dieses Kunstvereines als die Stützen desselben betrachtet und bewundert.“


    (“The participants [at the Kiesewetters’ house] were, as usual, professional musicians or exceptional amateur musicians from the capital [Vienna]. The women’s choir – sopranos and altos – was made up of the more senior singing students from the local conservatorium, directed by their teacher, Miss Nanette Fröhlich [Anna Fröhlich]. Recently, the solo parts have been entrusted to her private students or to her sister Josephine Fröhlich, who rise sparkling to the occasion every time. Indeed, the four Fröhlich sisters may have done more for art, and especially for the art of song, than many a Europe-famous vocal Amazon, and were thankfully appreciated for their active participation, their tireless efforts for these classical concerts, by all the members of this art society, who consider and admire them as the pillars of said society.”)


    („Aus Wien“ [Report on house concerts by Raphael Georg Kiesewetter]. In: Jahrbücher des Deutschen Nationalvereins für Musik und die Wissenschaft 4.1842, pp. 311-312, see also Waidelich 1997)


    Profile

    The singer and pianist Anna Fröhlich features in music history mostly as a member of Schubert’s friendship circle. However, of equal importance is her formative role in the history of the ‘Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’ [Society of Music Friends] in Vienna and in the tradition of private music making. Together with her sisters, she hosted numerous musical evenings in her home. As the eldest of the Fröhlich sisters and an active singing teacher, Anna contributed significantly to the family’s wellbeing.


    Anna Fröhlich’s musical training began with her mother and continued through personal encounters within various musical circles, through regular music making in different contexts and through the almost daily outings to the theatre and the opera. In this way, she grew into the musical life around her. Her active participation as a pianist and singer in private and semi-public concert evenings, and her spontaneous singing and playing of newly composed music, show a life centred around music. Not only did she diligently nurture relationships with artistically and culturally likeminded people, but such contacts formed an integral part of her everyday life.

    Her appearances as a singer show a clear focus on repertoire for multiple voices (duets, trios, quartets). Even the Schubert compositions that were inspired or commissioned by Anna fall into this category. One sees her commitment to the arts not just in her support for Schubert and his works, but in her way of thinking in general.

    Cities and countries

    Apart from occasional trips for personal reasons such as stays at a health spa or visits to the countryside, Anna Fröhlich did not leave Vienna.

    Biography

    Anna Fröhlich was the eldest of the four Fröhlich sisters (Barbara Fröhlich, married name Bogner, Katharina Fröhlich, Josephine Fröhlich) and was born in Vienna on September 19th, 1793. Her parents, Mathias (1765-1843) and Barbara, nee Mayr (1764-1841) came from Pottendorf in Lower Austria and lived in Vienna/Weiden, a suburb of Vienna at the time, where they ran business maintaining wine barrels. Her father called himself a ‘Weinschlagmacher’, but was also involved in charity works as a so-called ‘Armenvater’. From 1811, the family lived in inner-city Vienna at Singerstraße 18 (still standing today), although their mother initially lived separately from her husband and daughters. From 1826, the family lived at Spiegelgasse 21 (no longer standing today, see Blaha, 2002, p.35-37), where Franz Grillparzer later took a room in 1849, following the deaths of Barbara and Mathias Fröhlich. Anna, Katharina and Josephine Fröhlich looked after him until his death in 1872 (see especially → Katharina Fröhlich). The homes in Singerstraße and Spiegelgasse were two of Vienna’s musical centres, regularly frequented by artists, intellectuals and writers.

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    According to letters, the children were introduced to music through their mother and received “elementary lessons” (Schilling, 1840, p. 69) in Vienna from the choirmaster at Karlskirche, Michael Hanss (1767-1825). Giuseppe Siboni (1780-1839), who first visited Vienna from 1810-1814 and remained friendly with the family for many years, has been named as a singing teacher to the four sisters, although there is no evidence of regular lessons.

    As a pianist, Anna Fröhlich’s training was based on the Johann Nepomuk Hummel method. At this point, however, it is not clear whether she worked with him personally or with his ‘Klavierschule’, published in 1828. According to the source: Sie “benützte noch besonders Hummels Schule, wurde dadurch eine ausgezeichnete Pianistin” (“she used Hummel’s School especially, and thus became an outstanding pianist”; Schilling, 1842, p. 104).


    As early as 1814, Anne Fröhlich appeared in the newly formed ‘Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’ [Society of Friends of Music] as a “practising member” (Blaha, 2002, p. 41; see also ‘Monatbericht’ 1829) and was connected to the society and the conservatorium for decades, not only as a participant in their musical events but, in due course, as a singing teacher. In April 1819, the ‘Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’, as it is known today, created a third singing class for her, the highest level offered at the time. Anna’s sister, Josephine Fröhlich, was one of her students there in 1819/20. Numerous positive reports about Anna’s students’ performances testify to her competence as a singing teacher, for example: “Dieser Erfolg [der Schülerin Francisca Goldberg] gereicht der Lehrerinn für die Classe der höheren Ausbildung im Gesang, Dlle. Anna Fröhlich, um so mehr zur Ehre, als die Schwierigkeit sehr groß ist, noch größtentheils physisch und psychisch unentwickelte Mädchen in einer Kunst zu bilden, bey welcher die Überwindung mechanischer Schwierigkeiten nicht allein hinreicht, sondern wo unmittelbar das Herz zum Herzen sprechen muß, und wobey selbst der Unterricht immer durch die nöthige Rücksicht auf den niedrigen Grad der Entwicklung gehemmt ist.” (“This success [of the student Francisca Goldberg] is of even greater credit to her teacher, Miss Anna Fröhlich, as it is very difficult to train young girls, who, for the most part, are still physically and psychologically undeveloped, in an art where overcoming mechanical difficulties alone does not suffice, but rather, the heart must speak directly to other hearts, and where the early stage of development must always be taken into account in lessons”; Der Sammler, 97 from August 14th, 1834, p. 389).


    Anna Fröhlich taught at the conservatorium for around 35 years, with a break while the school was closed between 1848 and 1851, until her somewhat involuntary retirement in 1854 (Pohl, 1871, p. 38; Hennenberg, 2013, pp. 380-382). In conflicts that arose with the running of the society and at the conservatorium, Anne Fröhlich was supported by friends of the family, Franz Grillparzer and Leopold Sonnleithner (see below; Sauer, 1924, pp. 257-258). Despite this support, she ultimately fought in vain against the rising pressure for her to focus her teaching more on opera singing (Blaha, 2002, p. 246; Hennenberg, 2013, pp. 380-381). Her successor was the much younger opera singer and belcanto specialist Mathilde Marchesi (1821-1913). Parallel to her teaching at the conservatorium and in the time following her retirement, Anna Fröhlich had numerous private students.


    Between 1818 and 1840, Anna Fröhlich was regularly named as a singer and pianist in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’s so-called ‘Abend-Unterhaltungen’ [Evening Entertainments] that took place between 1818 and 1856, featuring chamber music and vocal music for solo and multiple voices. She also appeared at public and private occasions as a pianist and singer.


    The Fröhlich sisters’ friendship with Franz Schubert began in around 1820, having met through Leopold von Sonnleithner (1791-1873), a cousin of Grillparzer’s. Sonnleithner, who was himself part of a prominent Viennese musical family and one Schubert’s first supporters, had brought the sisters some of Schubert’s songs. Soon Schubert himself was a guest in their home in Singerstraße and later also in Spiegelgasse (Breuning, 1884, p. 1). Besides Franz Schubert and Franz Grillparzer, various members of Vienna’s musical circles could regularly be found visiting the Fröhlich’s home, including Leopold Sonnleithner and his brother Moritz Sonnleithner (1805-1836), Ferdinand Walcher von Uysdael (1799-1873) and Johann Karl Schoberlechner (1800-1879); amongst others, Walcher has been named as Anna’s bridegroom (Sauer, 1894, p. 85; see also Josephine Fröhlich).


    Among the private musical events in Vienna’s high society that Anna Fröhlich attended, either as an artist or a guest, were those at the Kiesewetter and the Sonnleithner homes. While the evenings at Raphael Georg Kiesewetter’s mostly featured older music, Schubert was often to be heard at the Sonnleithners’. Anna Fröhlich’s students appeared frequently at the Kiesewetters’ and were indispensable to the performances that Anna Fröhlich led from the piano from 1825 to 1827 (Kier, p. 185). Concerning Anna Fröhlich: “Die älteste Schwester besitzt eine große Fertigkeit und Präzision auf dem Pianoforte, dabei spielt sie besser und richtiger als mancher Kapellmeister selbst Partituren vom Blatte. Auch singt sie alles Vorgelegte prima vista.” (“The oldest sister plays with great skill and precision on the pianoforte, and sight-reads better and more correctly than some Kapellmeister. Also, she sings everything presented to her ‘prima vista’.”; Castelli, 1824, p. 128)


    On December 1st, 1820, the legendary first performance of Schubert’s “Erlkönig” took place in front of an audience, sung by August Ritter von Gymnich with Anna Fröhlich at the piano. Schubert was a regular guest at the “musical exercises” at the Sonnleithners’, where he would occasionally accompany performances of his own songs on the piano. Among the musicians and singers who performed there were, in addition to Anna Fröhlich, her sisters Barbara and Josephine (Böcking, 1862, pp. 374-375).


    As the eldest of the four sisters, it was Anna Fröhlich who initiated social events in their home. She arranged for their regular guest, Franz Schubert, to compose vocal works for her students (a women’s choir, for example) and for her sister Josephine (see below).

    The story of how Schubert’s “Ständchen” D920 (“Zögernd leise”) came about goes back to old narratives of an aging Anna Fröhlich and can be found in several various versions (Breuning, 1884; Lux, 1912). In actual fact, Anna Fröhlich commissioned the text for a ‘Ständchen’ [serenade] from Franz Grillparzer and the music from Schubert in July 1827. It was intended as a birthday gift for her student, Louise Gosmar (1803-1858; later Leopold Sonnleithner’s wife), to be performed by Anna’s students with Josephine Fröhlich. Schubert initially wrote a piece for male choir but, on Anna Fröhlich request, quickly wrote a second version for Gosmar’s colleagues, who then performed it outdoors at the Gosmar’s country house in Döbling on August 11th, 1827. The ‘Ständchen’ was performed publicly by Josephine Fröhlich as part of the “Privat Concertes, welches Franz Schubert am 26. März” (“Private Concert, [given] by Franz Schubert on March 26th”) 1828 in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde’s society hall (at that time with the address Tuchlauben Nr. 558; facsimile of the programme notes in Deutsch, 1913, p. 178).


    For decades, Anna Fröhlich championed Franz Schubert and his work in many ways. In 1829, she appeared as one of the commissioners of Schubert's “Schwanengesang” D 957 (Deutsch, 1964, p. 577). She arranged for his vocal works to be performed and organized charity concerts, e.g. for the financing of his tombstone. These concerts took place on January 30th and March 5th, 1829. A concert programme for “Freytag den 30. Jänner 1829 [Friday the 30th of January, 1829]”, drawn up by Anna Fröhlich reads: “Einladung zu einem Privat-Concerte, welches die Unterzeichnete […] geben wird, wovon die eine Hälfte der Einnahmen zur Errichtung eines Monumentes für den verstorbenen Compositeur Franz Schubert, die andere zu einem wohlthätigen Zweck bestimmt ist (“Invitation to a private concert that the undersigned will give, [...] of which half of the proceeds will be used to erect a monument to the deceased composer Franz Schubert and the remaining half for charitable purposes.”) Schubert’s “Mirjams Siegegesang” D942 “vorgetragen von Herrn Titze und dem Chor [performed by Mr Titze and the choir]” is the first item on the concert programme, accompanied by two pianos, presumably played by Anna Fröhlich and Johann Baptist Jenger (1797-1856; facsimile of the programme notes in Deutsch, 1913, p. 180). The piece was composed by Schubert to a text by Franz Grillparzer in 1828 for the Fröhlich sisters. The solo was intended for Josephine Fröhlich, accompanied by a mixed quartet and was initially not intended for public performance. Schubert's death led to its performance at the concert on January 30th, 1829. A version with orchestra was completed in 1830 by Franz Lachner (1803-1890), also a friend of the Fröhlich family’s.


    Anna Fröhlich is said to have provided the main income for the household, which included her two sisters Josephine and Katharina (Barbara moved out in later years) and, as mentioned above, Franz Grillparzer. According to contemporary sources, she was the head of the family (Wickenburg-Almasy, 1880, p. 1-2). Until the very end, she took care of the daily concerns, surviving all three of her sisters as well as Grillparzer. Anna Fröhlich died on March 11th, 1880 in Vienna.


    Shortly before her death, with an application dated December 3rd, 1879, she created the “Schwester-Fröhlich-Stiftung” (Fröhlich Sisters Foundation; facsimile in Blaha, 2002, Appendix p. 128), to support struggling artists and academics from her estate.

    Appreciation

    As a participant in various musical salons in Vienna, Anna Fröhlich did not only play a key role in shaping contemporary musical life as a musician and singer, but also as an intermediary between artists, music lovers and potential patrons. Franz Schubert and Franz Grillparzer, as well as Leopold Sonnleithner and Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach, were among her acquaintances. She repeatedly inspired Schubert to compose works for multiple voices. After Schubert's death, Anna Fröhlich worked to organise and host charity concerts dedicated to the composer and his work, but also to support active artists. Her commitment to charity work can be seen in the founding of the ‘Schwester-Fröhlich-Stiftung’ (1879) shortly before her death.

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    Anna Fröhlich quickly became highly recognised as a vocal teacher at the conservatorium. In her prime, her pedagogical skills and singing methods gained her regular press attention. She was just as committed to the establishment and pedagogical vision of the singing school, even as she was made to fight for her job in the years before her involuntary retirement. After 1850 Anna Fröhlich’s training of opera singers was heavily criticized, leading to her dismissal and retirement in 1854 (Sauer, 1924, p. 260; Hennenberg, 1913, pp. 382-383).


    The fact that she encouraged Schubert to compose songs for multiple voices (preferably for female voices) might be related to her pedagogical concept, as she apparently attached great importance to ensemble singing, as ultimately evident from the fact that these works were presented by Anna Fröhlich's students year after year in the “Zöglings und Prüfungskonzerten” (“student and examination concerts”).


    The following works were composed by Franz Schubert on Anna Fröhlich’s request:


    “Psalm 23” D 706 (1820); first performance as part of an examination concert at the singing school on August 30th, 1721, and again at the Sonnleithners’ home on June 9th, 1822; September 7th, 1826 as part of a student concert for Anna Fröhlich’s students and again on November 16th of the same year, as well as March 18th, 1827 and May 29th, 1828.


    “Gott in der Natur” D 757 (1822); sung by 12 of Anna Fröhlich’s students at one of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien’s “Abend-Unterhaltungen”, it was performed in August of the same year as part of an examination concert, and again on February 28th, 1828, at another “Abend-Unterhaltung”.


    “Des Tages Weihe” D 763 (1822), composed on Anna Fröhlich’s suggestion for Barbara von Geymüller.


    “Das Ständchen” D 920 “Zögernd leise” (1827); Text by Franz Grillparzer for Anna Fröhlich’s student Louise Gosmar’s birthday. Premiered by Anna Fröhlich’s students with Josephine Fröhlich as soloist on August 11th, 1827. Further performances: at a Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien’s “Abend-Unterhaltung” on January 24th, 1828, and on March 26th, 1828, as part of the “Privat-Concert” hosted by Schubert.


    “Mirjams Siegesgesang” D 942 (1828); Text by Franz Grillparzer, performed with Josephine Fröhlich as soloist on January 30th, 1829, and on March 5th, 1829, with Ludwig Titze as soloist and Anna Fröhlich as piano accompanist.

    Reception

    During her lifetime, Anna Fröhlich’s extensive cultural activities gained her recognition, including in contemporary literature and the press. She was praised for her work as a singing teacher and supporter of Schubert as well as for her commitment to the arts in general and especially for her charity work.


    Even in her old age, Anna Fröhlich was as an important source of information for younger generations, supporting the developing Schubert cult as one of the last witnesses (Breunig, 1884). She featured with her sisters in literary works and trivial literature but also as a personality in her own right. The legends about the sisters still circulating at the beginning of the 20th century were evidently also the trigger for a novel and eventually the operetta ‘Dreimäderlhaus’, even though the Fröhlich sisters are not named at all and the plot, in which Schubert plays the main role, is more than far-fetched. Nevertheless, the novel by Rudolf Hans Bartsch (Schwammerl. Ein Schubert-Roman, Leipzig: Staackmann, 1912) and the operetta version by Heinrich Berté (Das Dreimäderlhaus, premiered in Vienna in 1916) were considered a highly “erfolgreich vermarktetes Rezeptionsphänomen” [successfully marketed phenomenon] in connection with the myth of the four Fröhlich sisters (Waidelich, 2002, Col. 190). Postcards with scenes from the plot were widespread, as well as popular film versions (Richard Oswald, 1918; Ernst Marischka, 1958).

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    Reception as Singing Teacher

    A comprehensive list of approximately 200 students, including some males singers, was compiled by Johanna Blaha (see Blaha, 2002, Appendix pp. 58-83).


    The following sources (incomplete list) relate to Anna Fröhlich’s reputation as a singing teacher:


    Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung mit besonderer Rücksicht auf den österreichischen Kaiserstaat 56. 14. Juli 1819. Sp. 445.


    Österreichischer Beobachter. 26. November 1819. S. 1620.


    Wiener Zeitschrift. 14. Mai 1825. S. 486.


    Der Humorist.19. März 1838. S.179.


    „Aus Wien“ [report on a concert at Raphael Georg Kiesewetter’s home]. In: Jahrbücher des Deutschen Nationalvereins für Musik und die Wissenschaft. 4. 1842. S. 311-312.


    Literary Reception, partly trivial literature:

    Wickenburg-Almasy, Wilhelmine. 1880 see B Sources.

    Najmájer, Marie von. 1904 see B Sources.

    Lux, Joseph August. 1912 see B Sources.

    Lux, Joseph August. Die Schwestern Fröhlich (Grillparzers ewige Braut). Eine Komödie aus Wiens klassischer Zeit in 3 Akten mit einem Vorspiel und einem Nachspiel. Die Weissen Hefte. Gmain: 1923.

    Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie. 1915/16 siehe „Quellen B“.

    Schimmel-Falkenau, Walter. Melodie in Moll: Roman um Franz Schubert und Anna Fröhlich. Aschaffenburg: Pattloch, 1957.


    Poems by various contemporaries, including:

    Franz Grillparzer. Zum Namenstag für Anna Fröhlich. Entstanden 1821. In: Franz Grillparzer: Sämtliche Werke. Band 1. München [1960–1965]. S. 142-143.

    Ignaz von Sonnleithner. Vierfache Sehnsucht an Netti, Nelli, Nina, Nanny. O.D. Hs Wienbibliothek.

    Ignaz von Sonnleithner. An meine Netti [1817]. Hs Wienbibliothek.

    Repertoire

    There is evidence of Anna Fröhlich’s performances as both a singer and as a pianist (see Pohl, 1871 and Blaha, 2002, Chronology pp. 31-46). Her repertoire as a singer included arias from contemporary operas, lieder, and especially songs for multiple voices (duets, trios, quartets) by various composers. As a pianist, she performed as a chamber musician and a vocal accompanist. Opportunities to perform came from events in private homes in Vienna and through her involvement with the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, where she appeared in ‘Abend-Unterhaltungen’ regularly between 1818 and 1840.

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    As a pianist

    All information and names of works according to Blaha, 2002, Chronology pp. 31-46. The performances took place in Vienna as part of the “Abend-Unterhaltungen”. There are no sources regarding further performances.


    30.4.1818 Sonate für Klavier und Violoncello von Krufft

    8.10.1818 Adagio, Variationen und Rondeau von Hummel

    10.12.1818 Polonaise für Pianoforte und Violine von Mayseder

    28.1.1819 Quintett für Pianoforte, Clarinette, Oboe, Horn und Fagott von Mozart

    11.2.1819 „La Sentinelle“ von Hummel

    11.3. 1819 Sonate für Pianoforte und Cello

    26.12.1822 Quartett in g-moll für Pianoforte, Violine, Viola und Cello von Mozart

    30.1.1823 Großes Quintett für Pianoforte, Oboe, Clarinette, Horn und Fagott von Beethoven

    25.11.1824 Notturno von Hummel zu vier Händen mit Begleitung von zwei Waldhörnern


    Anna Fröhlich is likely to have accompanied vocal numbers at numerous examination concerts at the conservatorium.


    Noteworthy is her appearance as the piano accompanist in the first performance of Schubert's “Erlkönig” at the Sonnleithners’ home on December 1st, 1820, with the tenor August Ritter von Gymnich.


    As a singer

    All information and names of works according to Blaha, 2002, Chronology pp. 31-46. Anna Fröhlich is unlikely to have appeared as a soloist. All of the approximately 50 verifiable performances took place in the years between 1818 and 1824, singing as a part of an ensemble and, for the most part, with her sister Barbara Fröhlich at the “Abend-Unterhaltungen” and at Raphael Georg Kiesewetter’s house concerts. Composers include Mozart and Rossini, but also Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Andreas Romberg, Valentino Fioravanti, Vincenzo Puccita, Josef Mayseder, Ferdinando Paër, Domenico Cimarosa, Giovanni Paisiello and Alexander Ernst Fesca.

    Sources

    Selection

    A Anna Fröhlich’s Documents


    [Albumblatt from Anna Fröhlich in] Zur Feyer des 100sten. Quartett-Abendes Herrn Josef Hellmesberger von seinen Verehrern. 1860 : [Gratulationskassette für Joseph Hellmesberger]. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek


    Briefe an die Schwestern und andere Zeitgenossen. Wienbibliothek Hs


    Gesellschaftsakte der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien, Archiv der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien


    Tagebuch, vernichtet von Anna Fröhlich (Breuning, 20. Nov. 1884, S. 4)


    Occasionally, eyewitnesses and contemporaries who had conversations with her about her relationships with Schubert or Grillparzer quote Anna Fröhlich directly. See: Breunig, 1885; Ebner-Eschenbach, 1915/16; Sauer, 1924

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    B Sources (chronological 1821-1964)


    Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung mit besonderer Rücksicht auf den österreichischen Kaiserstaat 78. 29. September 1821. Sp. 620.


    Boeckh, Franz H. Wiens lebende Schriftsteller, Künstler und Dilettanten im Kunstfache.[…] Wien: B.Ph. Bauer, 1822.


    [Castelli, Ignaz Franz]. „Tagebuch aus Wien (Fortsetzung)“. In: Dresdner Abend-Zeitung Nr. 32, 6. Februar 1824. S. 128 und Dresdner Abend-Zeitung Nr. 33. 7. Februar 1824. Eintrag über Schwestern Fröhlich erfolgt nach Tagebuch-Mitteilung vom 23./24. November 1823.


    „Monatbericht der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde des Oesterreichischen Kaiserstaates“. Wien: Haslinger 1829. V. S. 70.


    Conservatorium der Musikfreunde des österreichischen Kaiserstaates. In: Der Sammler 97, 14. August 1834. S. 389-390.


    Schilling, Gustav. Encyclopädie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften oder Universal-Lexicon der Tonkunst. 3. Band. Stuttgart: Franz Heinrich Köhler 1836. S. 69.


    „Aus Wien“ [Bericht über Hauskonzerte bei Raphael Georg Kiesewetter]. In: Jahrbücher des Deutschen Nationalvereins für Musik und die Wissenschaft. 4. 1842. S. 311-312.


    Schilling, Gustav. Das musikalische Europa oder Sammlung von durchgehends authentischen Lebens-Nachrichten über jetzt in Europa lebende ausgezeichnete Tonkünstler, Musikgelehrte, Componisten, Virtuosen, Sänger etc. Speyer: Neidhard, 1842. S. 104-105.


    Bernsdorf, Eduard. Neues Universal-Lexikon der Tonkunst: für Künstler, Kunstfreunde und alle Gebildeten. Band 2. Dresden: Schaefer, 1857.


    Böcking, Wilhelm. „Musikalische Skizzen aus Alt-Wien“. In: Recensionen und Mittheilungen über Theater, Musik und bildende Kunst Nr. 24. 15. Juni 1862. S. 369-375.


    Pohl, Carl Ferdinand. Die Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde des Österreichischen Kaiserstaates und ihr Conservatorium. Wien: W. Braumüller, 1871.


    Wickenburg-Almasy, Wilhelmine. „Von Dreien die Letzte“. In: Neue Freie Presse. Morgenblatt Nr. 5593. 24. März 1880.


    Breuning, Gerhard von. „Aus Grillparzers Wohnung“. In: Neue Freie Presse Nr. 7266. 19. November 1884. S. 1-3 und Neue Freie Presse Nr. 7267. 20. November 1884. S. 1-4.


    Sauer, August. „Briefe von Katharina Fröhlich an ihre Schwestern“. In: Jahrbuch der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft 4. 1894. S. 83-118.


    Sauer, August. „Grillparzer und Katharina Fröhlich“. In: Jahrbuch der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft 5. 1895. 219-292.


    Najmájer, Marie von. „Bei den Schwestern Fröhlich“. In: Jahrbuch der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft 14. Jahrgang. 1904. S. 141-148.


    Lux, Joseph August. Grillparzers Liebesroman. Berlin: Bong, 1912.


    Ebner-Eschenbach Marie von. „Meine Erinnerungen an Grillparzer“. In: Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach: [Gesammelte Werke in drei Bänden. Bd. 3:] Erzählungen. Autobiographische Schriften. München 1956-1958. S. 886-917. Erstdruck: In: Westermanns deutsche Monatshefte. Bd. 119. Braunschweig: Westermann, 1915/16.


    Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie von. „Grillparzer und die Schwestern Fröhlich“. In: Der Lesezirkel. Bd. 4. 1916/17. S. 3-7.

    Sauer, August. „Zur Biographie der Schwestern Fröhlich“. In: Grillparzer-Studien. Oskar Katann (Hg.). Wien: Gerlach & Wiedling, 1924. S. 254–277.

    Deutsch, Otto Erich. Franz Schubert. Sein Leben in Bildern. Zweite Auflage. Die Dokumente seines Lebens und Schaffens. Dritter Band. München: Georg Müller, 1913.


    Deutsch, Otto Erich. Schubert. Die Erinnerungen seiner Freunde. Leipzig 1957. Unveränderter Nachdruck der Auflage. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1983.


    Potschner, Peter, Die Wiederherstellung der Alterswohnung Grillparzers im Historischen Museum der Stadt Wien. In: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege. Nr. 16. Wien 1962. S. 15-29.


    Deutsch, Otto Erich. Schubert. Die Dokumente seines Lebens gesammelt und erläutert von Otto Erich Deutsch. Franz Schubert. Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke. Serie VIII: Supplement. Band 5. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1964.



    C Secondary Literature (chronological)


    Kier, Herfrid. Raphael Georg Kiesewetter (1883-1850). Wegbereiter des musikalischen Historismus. Regensburg: Bosse, 1968.


    Hilmar, Ernst. Schubert. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1989.


    Bodendorff, Werner. Franz Schuberts Frauenbild. Augsburg: Wißner, 1996.


    Clive, Peter. Schubert and His World. A Biographical Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. S. 50-54.


    Hilmar, Ernst und Margret Jestremski (Hg.). Schubert-Lexikon. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1997.


    Waidelich, Till Gerrit. „´er soll’s Maul aufmachen´. Schubert im ´Tagebuch aus Wien´ der Dresdner Abend-Zeitung von Ignaz Franz Castelli“. In: Schubert durch die Brille. 18. 1997. S. 25-40.


    Badura-Skoda, Eva. Schubert und seine Freunde. Wien u.a.: Böhlau, 1999.


    Blaha, Johanna. Die Schwestern Fröhlich. Dissertation Universität Wien. 2002.


    Boisits, Barbara. „Fröhlich, Schwestern“. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon. Rudolf Flotzinger (Hg.). Band 1. Wien: Verl. der Österr. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2002. S. 498-499.


    Waidelich, Till Gerrit. „Fröhlich, Familie“. In: MGG Personenteil 7. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2002. Sp. 189-190.


    Montgomery, David. Franz Schubert´s Music in Performance. Compositional Ideals, Notational Intent, Historical Realities, Pedagogical Foundations. (= Monographs in Musicology 11). Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2003.


    Doppler, Else. „Fallbeispiel Spiegelgasse 21 (Wohn und Sterbehaus Franz Grillparzers)“. In: Alt-Wien. Die Stadt, die niemals war. Ausstellungskatalog Wien Museum. Wolfgang Kos und Christian Rapp (Hg.). Wien: Czernin, 2004. S. 395-396.


    Hilmar, Ernst und Margret Jestremski (Hg.). Schubert-Enzyklopädie. Band 1. Tutzing: Schneider, 2004.


    Hennenberg, Beate. Das Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien. Beiträge zur musikalischen Bildung in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Wien: Praesens, 2013.



    D Images


    Portraits

    [Thugut?] Heinrich. Portrait. Kreidezeichnung. Deutsch 1964, S. 296.


    Emanuel Peter. Portrait, 1830

    Bildarchiv, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

    http://data.onb.ac.at/rec/baa14198149


    Group pictures with the sisters, from left to right:

    Betty, Katharina, Anna

    Nicht näher bestimmbarer Zeitungsausschnitt,

    http://www.bildarchivaustria.at/Bildarchiv//711/B7908813T7908818.jpg


    Katharina, Sophie Müller, Anna, Barbara, Josephine Fröhlich:

    Julius Schmid. Ein Schubert-Abend in einem Wiener Bürgerhause. Ölgemälde (entstanden 1897, anl. Schuberts 100. Geburtstag). Original: Wiener Schubertbund. Hilmar 1989, S. 193, Vorstudie (Kohlezeichnung) Hilmar 1989, S. 63.

    Research

    The name Anna Fröhlich appears mostly in Franz Schubert literature in connection with the works she commissioned or in the context of the ‘Women around Schubert’. Similarly, Anna Fröhlich appears in literature on the history of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien and Franz Grillparzer. Anna Frohlich is usually only mentioned in literature about the Fröhlich sisters. Some of the most recent research into the ‘Konservatorium der Musikfreunde in Wien’ (see Hennenberg, 2013) sheds new light on Fröhlich's teaching work and the circumstances surrounding her employment as a singing teacher.

    Need for research

    Her work as a pianist, singer, piano accompanist, piano teacher and member of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien, apart from her role as a friend of Schubert's and Grillparzer's, has been little studied. The reasons why Anna Fröhlich's teaching methods were criticized could still be explored in detail. In any case, there is not much concrete information about the teaching methods she successfully employed over many years. It is not clear from the available sources if Anna Fröhlich differentiated between opera and song repertoire in her teaching methods. It would also be worthwhile to investigate the potential challenges that arose from her dual teaching positions – one at the conservatorium and the other giving private lessons. The exact numbers and the careers of the students who were trained by Anna Fröhlich both privately and at the conservatorium are still unknown, along with details about her private life, which she clearly tried to keep as secret as possible.

    Normdaten

    Virtual International Authority File (VIAF): 80419299
    Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (GND): 136000614

    Autor/innen

    Ingeborg Harer


    Bearbeitungsstand

    Redaktion: Silke Wenzel
    Zuerst eingegeben am 24.11.2015
    Zuletzt bearbeitet am 17.04.2018


    Empfohlene Zitierweise

    Ingeborg Harer, Artikel „Anna Fröhlich“, in: MUGI. Musikvermittlung und Genderforschung: Lexikon und multimediale Präsentationen, hg. von Beatrix Borchard und Nina Noeske, Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg, 2003ff. Stand vom 17.4.2018
    URL: http://mugi.hfmt-hamburg.de/artikel/Anna_Fröhlich